Directorate S is responsible for matters related to the realisation and in-service use of Navy ships and boats, the Navy-specific shore-based systems, communication systems, training installations and other Navy-specific equipment. It supports the units from the first stages of realisation to the disposal of decommissioned units and their subsequent handover to the disposal organisation. Thus the Sea Directorate is responsible for maintaining and restoring the operational maturity of the products assigned to it and therefore bears the material responsibility for these products “from the cradle to the grave”.
Directorate S consists of a total of six divisions, each with a different focus of activities, the Directorate Staff and Directorate Controlling. Within this organisation, three project divisions support the units afloat: S3 (frigates and corvettes); S4 (submarines, mines, mine countermeasures, subsurface weapon systems); and S5 (support units, auxiliaries and support systems).
For every ship class, there is one project manager in charge of the armaments and/or in-service support management tasks. Starting with part 2 of the CPM analysis phase, the project managers are in charge of “integrated project teams”.
Apart from the project divisions, Directorate S has three specialised divisions that support the projects. These divisions are: Economic and Technical Affairs (S1), Economic and Legal Affairs (S2) and Navy C2 Systems (S6).
In addition to its specialised tasks, Division S6 is also in charge of the project management of the shore-based systems, training installations and operational training centres of the Navy, as well as of the project management for the integration of the enhanced RAM missile system into the combat systems of corvettes and frigates. Branch S6.4 is the qualifying authority for combat direction systems software and releases IT system configurations for use on the Navy ships and boats and associated shore-based systems and training installations. The following is an outline of the current status of selected projects of Directorate S:
F124 Long-Range Sensor Obsolescence Removal and Air Defence Capability Enhancement
With its three F124 class frigates the German Navy operates ships specifically designed for force air defence and joint air defence. The main sensor for generating a wide-area air picture is the SMART-L air surveillance radar, which is, however, heavily affected by obsolescence.
The main aim of this project, called “Obs WuF LV F124”, is retaining the F124’s air surveillance capability by removing the obsolescence of SMART-L. Additionally, the F124 will be enabled to contribute to NATO Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) in a manner that reflects Germany’s leading role in Cluster Air and Missile Defence (AMD) in the fields of early warning and target cueing. The realisation will consist of two stages:
Stage 1 includes the removal of obsolescence by procuring a new long-range sensor and integrating it into the F124 class frigates. Apart from the three ship systems, in order to minimise risk, a test, reference and training (TRT) facility will be set up at the Naval School of Technology in Parow and later also be used as a maintenance training facility. The first tests and demonstrations of the long-range sensor will also be conducted at the TRT facility, in conjunction with a derivative of the Combat Direction System (CDS) F124. The CDS F124 version available at the TRT facility will already have been adjusted to the new long-range sensor at that time, especially in terms of sensor simulation and sensor control.
The long-range sensor will not be released for integration on board of the F124 until the demonstrations at the TRT facility have been completed successfully.
This means that a total of four long-range radars will be procured. The schedule for fitting and integrating the new long-range radars into the F124 class frigates is strictly based on the scheduled maintenance intervals so as not to impair the availability of the F124 class.
The stage 1 supplies/services are awarded on a competitive basis (negotiated procedure with a call for competition in accordance with Art. 11 of the procurement regulation on defence and security (VSVgV)); the call for competition was published in January 2019, marking the start of the competition for participation in the award procedure. Expressions of interest were received in March 2019. After thorough quality assurance by BAAINBw, the tender documents (contract draft, statement of work and evaluation matrix) and the Request for Proposal were sent to suitable bidders at the end of April 2019. The bid evaluation is set to be completed by the beginning of 2020; the submission for parliamentary deliberations as required for projects with a volume exceeding 25 million euros is intended to be prepared by the end of the first quarter of 2020.
The contract is planned to be concluded in the third quarter of 2020.
All manufacturers of radar systems suitable for this particular purpose employ the AESA (active electronically scanned array) radar technology and use semiconductors made of gallium nitride in their products. It is important to make use of the advantages this technology offers, such as the flexibility of the transmission diagrams (waveform). These software-defined radars can be adjusted and improved much more easily simply by changing the software for, e.g., control and processing.
Stage 2 includes the implementation of the sensors’ basic BMD capability, in this case early warning and target cueing. The F124 class frigates are not intended to use weapons to engage ballistic missiles. This future contribution of the German Navy to BMD has been included in the “Territorial missile defence” concept. For stage 2 a supplementary solution proposal in accordance with CPM is to be prepared by March 2020.
In order to be able to make a meaningful contribution to NATO BMD or the US-European Phased Adaptive Approach (EPAA), the entire functional chain, from the long-range radar on F124 to a missile (e.g. SM-3 as interceptor) used by a different ship (such as a US destroyer), must be taken into account. The sensor performance of the long-range radar selected in stage 1 regarding range and range resolution considerably contributes to achieving the required quality of the target information gained (track quality in accordance with STANAG 5516). In addition, extensions in the Tactical Data Link (TDL) segment are required, among other things.
In order to keep the required adjustments to the CDS F124 to a minimum and thus as low-risk as possible, the intention is to integrate a separate ballistic missile defence (BMD) module in the F124 combat direction system.
The BMD module takes care of the BMD mission planning and will also “control” the long-range sensor. The required threat database for ballistic missile classification must also form part of the BMD module.
In this context, a risk reduction analysis is to be performed together with the US Missile Defence Agency (MDA) in order to assess whether the US AEGIS BMD (HW/SW) is suitable. This offers a valuable opportunity to share in the US’s 30 years of experience in the field of ballistic missile defence. The risk reduction analysis was started in April 2019; the partial results will be included in the supplementary solution proposal for stage 2 of the ObsWuF LV F124 project.
If the supplementary solution proposal for stage 2 is approved and then implemented, the German Navy will cross the threshold to an entirely new warfare area. The impacts on operational training must also be taken into account.
Stage 2 of the ObsWuF LV F124 project will significantly contribute to minimising risks for the future Next Generation Frigate (NGF) ship class, for which the Bundeswehr Office for Defence Planning is currently preparing a project outline. The NGF is intended to be capable of Integrated Air and Missile Defence (IAMD), meaning that BMD sensor and shooter capabilities are required.
Class 125 Frigate Project
The four new class 125 frigates (F125) have been designed for long-term low and medium-intensity joint and combined military operations. Their design was dictated by several important requirements: heavy use, worldwide operation and defence against asymmetric threats. In order to be able to support long-term stabilisation missions, the F125 was designed to allow for in-theatre deployment periods of up to two years without scheduled yard periods and a considerably increased number of 5,000 underway steaming hours per year. At the same time, the manning level was reduced to about half the size of what it had been for classes F122 to F124, i.e. to a permanent crew of approx. 120 persons. This new concept is realised by selecting robust and low-maintenance systems and equipment, a high degree of automation and various other technical and organizational measures. ARGE F125, a joint venture of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) and Fr. Lürssen Werft, builds the vessels. The first ship of this class, the frigate BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, completed the yard trial in April 2016 and began the test and evaluation programme at sea. The sea acceptance trial for the marine engineering systems was successfully completed in July 2016. The trials for the combat system were confirmed by the completion of the acceptance trial in August 2018. On 30 April 2019, the frigate BADEN WÜRTTEMBERG was the first unit of the F125 class that was successfully accepted. The Navy will now perform an operational suitability test that lasts twelve months. Acceptance of the rest of the F125 class ships is intended to be achieved by the end of 2020. The second F125, the NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN, started sea trials in January 2017. The SACHSEN-ANHALT, being the third ship, successfully completed the sea acceptance trial for the marine engineering systems in February 2018. In May 2017 the fourth frigate of this class was named RHEINLAND-PFALZ.
Second Lot of K130 Corvettes
With the first K130 lot, a very modern, highly complex weapon system with high technical standards was procured. The initial defects in some components, such as the gearing or the air-conditioning, were successfully corrected some time ago. The Navy’s current and future requirement for additional maritime platforms is explained by increasing operational commitments and, simultaneously, declining availability of naval platforms. This requirement is met by the procurement of five more K130 corvettes. By continuing the successful corvette K130 concept, the realisation risk is minimised. The tried and tested basic design of K130 will be retained for the procurement of ships 6 to 10. This way, the supplementary procurement of ships 6 to 10 is the most economic and efficient solution:
- new surface vessels will be commissioned in the near future,
- compared to a new design it is more cost-effective and available sooner,
- it reduces the realisation risk that a system this complex would carry, and
- it uses synergies within the Navy; only a high degree of system homogeneity will permit the use of existing training assets (personnel and infrastructure) as well as an identical logistic chain.
To make the in-service use possible for another 30 years, the obsolescence which have occurred after a 10-year service life must of course be removed, and adjustments must be made to comply with currently valid laws, regulations and standards. Taking these requirements into account, the construction contract with ARGE K130 was signed in September 2017. Ships 6 to 10 are planned to be commissioned from 2022 onwards.
New Submarines for Norway and Germany
In February 2017, the Norwegian government announced that it was going to procure new submarines for its Royal Norwegian Navy together with Germany as strategic partner. The cooperation is based on a joint memorandum of understanding concluded by the ministries in June 2017. Five areas of cooperation have been agreed in the “Naval Defence Materiel Cooperation” memorandum of understanding between the defence ministries of the Kingdom of Norway and the Federal Republic of Germany, also including common design, being the cornerstone of the U212CD project.
The partners have agreed upon a profound long-term cooperation that is not just limited to the procurement of the submarines but also includes their in-service support. After a common catalogue of functional requirements had been prepared, TKMS, formerly known as HDW, was invited to prepare an offer in July 2017. In the subsequent work-intensive phase, the project teams of the two procurement agencies and TKMS harmonised their efforts.
A total of six identical boats are meant to be procured from TKMS, as prime contractor, on the basis of a common catalogue of functional requirements. The boats are scheduled to be delivered from 2026 to 2031 so as to enable the Norwegian Navy to seamlessly transition from the ULA class submarines to U212CD. The fact that a common requirements catalogue can be interpreted differently, due to national or cultural differences, poses quite a challenge in this context. Despite all differences, the parties agree that the boats must be equipped with modern technology before their commissioning so that they are prepared for the upcoming decades. Further partners to the U212CD project are highly welcome, regardless of whether a long-standing partnership of 20 years already exists or a new partnership will be entered into.
The design of the new U212CD class is based on the class 212A boats in service with the German Navy since 2005. In light of the anti-submarine warfare (ASW) systems, which are continuously becoming more advanced, the requirements the navies are faced with have adjusted accordingly. The challenging signature requirements of U212A are combined with a greater range and speed as well as increased deployment periods at sea. An essential point is that the U212CD can use missiles to defend itself against airborne threats.
Reducing and optimising a submarine’s target strength is more relevant than ever, in particular so since the frigate BAYERN managed to detect the extremely small U206A class submarines at an outstanding range using the LFTAS low-frequency towed active sonar in the Bay of Biscay. Reducing the target echo strength is essential in every new design, although coating solutions are virtually ineffective against low-frequency and, hence, long-wave sonar pulses. That is why the structural design (sound absorbing lining of free floating spaces) is of essential importance.
Li-ion batteries, which have a much improved energy density, are intended to replace the batteries that have used the tried and tested lead-acid technology for more than 100 years. Although they facilitate operation quite a lot, e.g. through a discharge time that is up to four times higher during maximum speed, these Li-ion batteries also call for considerably higher safety requirements.
In-Service Support Cooperation
In order to avoid duplicate structures and ensure maximum availability of the units, the partners agreed to closely cooperate in terms of logistics and maintenance. Apart from common spare parts management, which had previously already been performed with other partners, the cooperation will include materiel maintenance and in-service support management specifically geared towards U212CD in the future. The German side intends to repair the submarines at the planned new Navy shipyard in Norway. This is not an entirely new situation for the German submariners: several class 205 and 206 boats have already been repaired in Norway. The fact that the submarines are identical offers new possibilities in terms of joint and reciprocal training or even operation with mixed crews. So far, it is planned to preserve the training capacities in the two countries. Despite all the excitement sparked by the new boat class it should be remembered that the 212A class submarines still remain in service. Germany thus faces a special challenge to equip the first lot of U212A submarines with as much CD technology as possible in the context of midlife refits; this is necessary in order to prepare the submarines for the future and allow for training across classes. It is these synergies that make it possible to put the available personnel resources to efficient use and tackle the obsolescence across the different classes. There is a lot of work to do.
Class 123 Frigate – Service Life Extension up to 2030
In order to maintain operational maturity until the currently intended end of service life has been reached in 2030, extensive measures are required to remove obsolescence of the four BRANDENBURG class frigates (F123) that were planned in the 1980s and commissioned up until 1996. All measures that inherently impact operational maturity will be considered by the F123 project manager in the system context within a so-called master plan; the project manager will also be responsible for continuous updates. The focus of the measures taken to maintain operational capabilities is currently on tactical radars, fire control systems, the integration of RAM Block 2 and HARPOON but also the modernisation of marine automation systems.
These measures will be implemented and integrated on board of the four frigates during scheduled maintenance intervals in the upcoming years in order to use synergy effects and the resulting financial planning to maintain a high level of operational availability. The tactical radar systems SMART-S (3D, short and medium range), LW08 (medium-range and long-range sensor) including VEX (video extractor) and MWCS (Multi Weapon Control System – fire control system for NSSM missile firing operations) were originally planned as individual measures, and obsolescence were removed by the redesign of parts in conjunction with appropriate final stockage.
To create a holistic, generic solution these measures will now be combined in the measure “Obsolescence removal of the tactical radars and fire control systems of the class 123 frigates”.
Mine Countermeasures (MCM)
Germany assumed command of the “Maritime Mine Countermeasures – Next Generation” (MMCM – NG) European Defence Agency (EDA) Cat B project in order to harmonise its national planning concerning naval mine countermeasures capability maintenance with the planning of other nations. Within the framework of the EDA project, the operational requirements were made consistent among the nations and common business cases were developed. The project was completed in October 2018.
The whole endeavour revealed the different future ambitions of the individual nations as well as the different pertaining specialisation levels that are to be achieved in terms of naval mine countermeasures. Belgium and the Netherlands, for example, intend to use their unmanned combat systems in theatres of operation that have been reconnoitred with regard to the risk posed by mines; they also plan to launch these systems from platforms that are only lightly protected against mines.
The German project is, in addition, meant to ensure the protection capability against threats posed by naval mines; the goal is to maintain operational freedom of own and allied or friendly armed forces across the entire spectrum of threats originating from explosive ordnance and naval mines. This also means that operational freedom within the context of naval mine countermeasure operations must be ensured in initial operations and in unsafe situations, which can be achieved by using specialised platforms that are mobile and highly protected against threats posed by naval mines.
The German project is assigned to the NATO planning goals. Within this context, NATO requires Germany to provide eleven specialised platforms as of 2030 as well as ensure the capability maintenance and implementation of advanced capabilities in the field of naval mine countermeasures. With the newly introduced Regional Naval Mine Warfare capability cluster and the Naval Mine Warfare Regional Competence Centre project, Germany expressed its claim to serve as a framework nation in terms of naval mine countermeasures.
The project is intended to be implemented in the form of highly protected seagoing special capability platforms and a naval mine countermeasures (NMCM) toolbox, which enables the capability platforms to cover different areas of naval mine countermeasures in a manner that is geared towards the situation and the threat. This also includes the approach to operate unmanned systems from these capability platforms in the future.
In principle, this project makes it possible to cooperate beyond the specialisation level of the platforms and, especially, within the context of the toolbox.
Combat Support Ship 2.0
The three combat support ships (CSS) are the main logistic and medical support units of the German Navy due to their large capability spectrum. To ensure this at all times, a wide range of measures is continuously being conducted to maintain operational maturity. This will result in the three CSS being substantially different from their former selves, turning them into “CSS 2.0”, so to speak.
Several adjustments due to changed requirements as well as obsolescence removal measures have been and will be conducted by Branch S5.1. On the two CSS of the first lot, the regeneration of the entire ship automation, which is basically the nervous system of the CSS, was exceptionally successful and was performed without exceeding the planned costs. Now, the focus lies on three measures in particular: the replacement procurement of the integrated mobile naval surgical hospital, the integration of the new SEA LION on-board helicopter to be fielded and the regeneration of the replenishment-at-sea facilities.
Replacement Procurement of the Integrated Mobile Naval Surgical Hospital
After the complete loss of the integrated mobile naval surgical hospital II on the FRANKFURT AM MAIN CSS, a solution based on long-standing operational experience was developed together with the Navy Medical Service. So far, a container concept has been used, but the new solution essentially provides for the use of an integrated mobile naval surgical hospital that is fully integrated and connected to the ship. Now that the design is not dependent upon the containers anymore, the room layout can be ideally geared towards the medical treatment processes. Patients can safely be moved from the helicopter hangar to the hospital now that the hospital is firmly connected to the CSS deckhouse. In addition, after the patients have been treated there, they can be transferred to the ward inside the ship using a bed elevator. So, for the first time, an entirely protected transfer is possible now. Not only is the new design favourable due to the considerable weight reduction of more than 50 t, which will benefit the maintenance margin of the CSS, but it will also reduce maintenance efforts in the long run. The integrated mobile naval surgical hospital will be manufactured and completely equipped independently of the CSS and must be subjected to functional tests. The goal is to cause as few restrictions as possible to the operational availability of the CSS FRANKFURT AM MAIN when the hospital is placed and set up on the ship. Realisation risks concerning the CSS are thus reduced to the achievable minimum. The contract conclusion in April 2019 marked the beginning of the procurement of the hospital, which ensures that the soldiers can receive the best possible medical care on the CSS in the future, even far from home.
SEA LION on Combat Support Ships
Soon after the beginning of 2020, the new SEA LION navy helicopter will be delivered. Preparations are in full swing to make the CSS BONN the first unit to host and operate the new helicopter in 2020.
The operational spectrum of the SEA LION on board the CSS is generally identical to that of the current SEA KING on-board helicopter, with the focus being on maritime tactical air transport of personnel and equipment and on search and rescue tasks. However, a multitude of different aspects must be taken into account for a successful embarkation. Apart from current regulations and a considerably bigger volume of embarkation equipment, linking up the IT systems is a particular challenge in the context of the integration. The flight deck will be fitted with a high-strength landing grid, and adjustments to the lighting of the flight deck and the power supply will be made. For the first time, a remote-controlled low-floor aircraft tow that is independent of the ship will be used. The costs of its procurement and maintenance are significantly lower while the tow’s availability is considerably higher than that of the previously used fixed traversing system for on-board helicopters.
The prerequisites necessary for maintenance and repair work are ensured by adjustments to the hangar crane system, maintenance platforms, air conditioning system, tie-down points and material holds. A connection to the on-board communications facilities must be set up and the additional IT equipment must be integrated in order to take care of the operational mission planning and plan and control the technical flight operations.
Regeneration of Replenishment-at-Sea Facilities (RAS Facility)
The 18-year old replenishment-at-sea facility of the first lot of CSS must be entirely regenerated due to advanced obsolescence. The existing port/starboard replenishment-at-sea facility is designed as mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical facility with electronic system components for transfer of liquids and solids, which makes it highly complex to control and operate. The failure rates of the in-service RAS facilities keep increasing the older these systems get. It has also turned out that the maintenance costs and time frames are an incalculable risk.
For this reason, the existing RAS facility will be removed and, instead, a solely electrically operated replenishment-at-sea facility with the simplest possible design will be integrated. The main goal of this work is to significantly increase the RAS facilities’ availability during in-service use.
POL Supply for Ships and Boats
The two support tankers RHÖN and SPESSART are owned by the Navy and have been in use for more than 40 years. Originally, they were built for Terkildsen & Oldsen A/S, a civilian Danish shipping company, under the names of OKENE and OKAPI. Then, on 18 March 1976, the German Navy took over the two support tankers and, after necessary alterations, commissioned them in 1977.
Capability Spectrum of the Current Support Tankers
The support tankers RHÖN and SPESSART fulfil the supply mission for national and international naval units at sea. With their three on-board RAS systems, they can supply other ships with fuels and freshwater at any time of the day and night. This significantly increases a naval unit’s sustainability. Always remaining in the background, the two support tankers reliably perform their duties up to this day and provide a major contribution to the fulfilment of the German Navy’s task within the context of mandated missions, such as ATALANTA.
Age Takes a Toll
A large number of missions coupled with the old age of the support tankers has caused the maintenance costs to rise over the past few years. This circumstance and the fact that environmental protection regulations have become more stringent over time, such as the requirement for a double hull, as well as stricter requirements regarding the emission of nitrogen oxide make it necessary to procure two new support tankers to replace the support tankers RHÖN and SPESSART, which will meet the projected end of their service life in 2022+.
Plans for the Future
The capability to supply seagoing units with POL products is an essential part of the German Navy’s portfolio and must be ensured beyond the service life of the Navy support tankers RHÖN and SPESSART. The requirements catalogue containing the indispensable capabilities of the new support tankers was compiled and handed over to BAAINBw for the preparation of possible solutions. Apart from the operating profile and the fuel quantity to be transported, it includes requirements concerning the military communication equipment, operation in different climates, helicopter operation and protection of the crew, among others. The goal is to provide an efficient product with which the future operational scenarios of the Navy can be mastered.
Building a Navy Support Tanker
The submitted functional requirements were transformed into functional performance values and translated into different proposed solutions. The project team is looking into various approaches (e.g. procuring commercially available equipment, leasing or developing a product from scratch) to take into account economic efficiency factors. The findings gained from market research and information from other nations (i.a. Norway/Great Britain) were also included in the considerations on how to continue. In the end, the analyses showed that, under the current conditions, the development of a new ship design is the only possible way to meet the requirements of the catalogue.
As part of the search for a solution for the procurement of the new Navy support tankers, one major task of the project team was to present the Navy with a selection of various solutions that differed in how they would meet the requirements.
When the Bundeswehr Chief of Defence has selected one of the solutions, the project will enter the realisation phase, in which the chosen solution will be translated into a statement of work. The delivery of the first unit will ensure that the Navy can seamlessly continue to supply seagoing units with POL products while the support tankers RHÖN and SPESSART can enter their well-deserved retirement.
Operational Training Centre for Frigates/Combat Support Ships
Within the scope of training modernisation, the efficiency and advantages of simulation systems are becoming ever more apparent. They make it possible to practice complex military scenarios in a reproducible manner and without putting the soldiers’ lives and health at risk. There is no harm done to the environment, and the costs are lower as compared to the training at the original facilities. In addition, the Navy has more ships and boats available for operations instead of them being occupied for training purposes. In order to account for this modern and professionalised training, operational training centres will be set up that enable the crews to be trained and prepared for missions on land and without their units. The F125 frigates, with their rotational crew concept, are intended to be the first ship class to benefit from this. The first operational training centre for frigates/combat support ships will be established at the base of Flotilla 2 in Wilhelmshaven. It will mainly consist of a complex integrated simulation system which makes it possible to practice on individual stations as well as in the form of a “total ship training” with the entire crew. This way, the training participants can experience and practice internal and external battle situations in true-to-life environments and within the context of common scenarios. A realistic exercise concerning fire and flooding control will be established, and, for the areas of NBC defence and the medical service, simulations that are identical to the situations on board will be created. These exercises serve to supplement the integrated simulation system. Stationary training aids will also be procured. Branch S6.3 of BAAINBw is responsible for the operational training centre for frigates/combat support ships project, which is currently in analysis phase part 2. This extensive project is intended to be implemented as of 2020.
Outlook on Future Projects
Medium Support Unit
Considering that the core requirements of units afloat include mobility and sustainability on missions around the globe, the replenishment-at-sea capability is of vital importance. Smaller and medium-sized units, such as corvettes, mine countermeasures units and submarines, are currently supplied with POL products by six class 404 tenders, of which one was specifically refitted to serve as submarine support unit. The class 404 tenders, which were commissioned at the beginning of the nineties, will reach the end of their service life within the next decade, which is why considerations are already made in part 1 of the analysis phase to ensure that the replenishment capability is seamlessly maintained. Changing operational scenarios, such as increased threat levels, must be considered, just like future developments within the fleet and dependencies on other projects, e.g. new submarines, helicopters and mine countermeasures units.
Standardisation of Maritime Combat Direction Systems (CDS)
In the past, a combat direction system was developed for each new class of surface combatant to account for technological progress, among other things. This approach resulted in a fragmented landscape of combat direction systems, which poses some challenges for training, personnel, system maintenance and modifications. In order to significantly reduce the complexity of system maintenance and modifications, which is caused by the numerous systems, as well as the pertaining costs and obsolescence, a standard combat direction system fit for every ship class is intended to be implemented in the Navy.
Additionally, the term “standardisation” was defined as:
- identical structures as well as controls and functions of the user interface (human-machine interface) of the combat direction systems across all capability platforms to improve operational safety, and
- the possibility to increasingly have the Bundeswehr determine the way ahead to be followed for future developments and how such developments are to be implemented.
The intention is to perform the integration into the ship, as overall system, with the help of integration projects that are specific to individual ship classes.
The basic technical principles for the standard combat direction system are meant to be established by implementing a core CDS around a CDS core.
The standard CDS supports all functions and processes in the areas of command and control, effects, reconnaissance and support, which are, so far, implemented in class-specific CDSs.
The standard CDS will be available in different types that each meet the requirements laid down in the task and operation profiles for the various capability platforms.
Team of authors BAAINBw.