The BAAINBw Land Support Directorate (U) has a very broad spectrum of tasks, ranging from individual equipment for Special Forces over security technology, military camps, medical equipment, CBRN protection, military wheeled vehicles, special vehicles and equipment to EW (electronic warfare), reconnaissance, air traffic control, robotics and training/simulation.
In addition, the Land Support Directorate exercises the general functional supervision over the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Land-Based Vehicle Systems, Engineer and General Field Equipment (WTD 41) in Trier, the Bundeswehr Research Institute for Protective Technologies and NBC Protection (WIS) in Munster and the Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Explosives, Fuels, and Lubricants (WIWeB) in Erding.
As in other directorates, the core tasks of the Land Support Directorate include project management in accordance with CPM (Customer Product Management) throughout the entire life cycle of the materiel, systems engineering and integration; research and technology (R&T); technical support during in-service use, and contract management and price negotiations.
Compared to the other directorates in which project work is carried out, specific characteristics of the Land Support Directorate are an unusually broad spectrum of technology-related tasks, the large number of projects, many of them small-scale projects, and distinctive procurement activities, in particular fast-track initiatives for operations.
The U Directorate is supported by the Directorate Staff (UAS) and the Directorate Controlling (UAC).
Project work is done in five project divisions with altogether 23 branches, and they receive support from the Economic and Technical Affairs (U1) and Economic and Legal Affairs (U2) Divisions.
The Economic and Technical Affairs Division (U1) performs general, overarching tasks for the projects and the leadership of the Directorate. The U1 Division with its four Branches serves as the Directorate’s central point of contact for the following:
- U1.1 Situation picture equipment, in-service support and IT, POC in analysis phase I towards the Bundeswehr Office for Defence Planning, operational and user support SASPF, coordination and IT architecture support across projects, IT security concepts and databases
- U1.2 Central process support and control within the U Directorate, IETD support, terminology
- U1.3 Functional supervision of WTD 41, WIS and WIWeB, R&T coordination (AB 50), coordination legal regulations, in particular REACH
- U1.4 Expert team coordination and support of master data processing, master data process control for systems in use/SASPF
The Economic and Legal Affairs Division (U2) with its five Branches is responsible for contract management and price negotiations for the project divisions, and is organised into Branches U2.1 to U2.4 responsible for contract management for project divisions U3 to U7, and Branch U2.6 responsible for price negotiations.
The five project divisions carry out project work in accordance with CPM throughout the entire life cycle of the materiel (implementation, use, condemnation), as follows:
- U3 Camp technology, camp protection and supply, CBRN protection, Mountain infantry and Military Police equipment, Special Forces individual equipment
- U4 Protected wheeled vehicles, Special vehicles & equipment, Integration, Protection, R&T processing
- U5 Electronic warfare, Reconnaissance, Air traffic control, Identification
- U6 Training technology, Simulation, Robotics
- U7 Military pharmacy, Medical treatment facilities and medical equipment
The following will provide an overview of selected projects of the Directorate.
Deployable GAF Combat Operations Center, Mission Counter DAESH (U3.1)
Since December 2015, the Bundeswehr has been supporting the Counter DAESH mission and the combat against the Islamic State in Syria with TORNADO reconnaissance aircraft and A310 MRTT refuelling aircraft.
To safeguard the command and control capability of the German armed forces abroad in a sustainable fashion in the long run, it was decided to replace the tent-based command post with a modern combat operations centre on the basis of HF-proof two-storey container blocks, comprising additional functions. In addition to the existing functionalities which were migrated to the new combat operations centre, it was also intended to procure and integrate support und functional elements of the ground exploitation reconnaissance system and the communication centre. In this process, requirements of military and IT security were to be met by providing so-called black and red information domains. Also, encrypted air-ground communication (known as red radio) had to be implemented. As a result, new/additional power generation and supply units are required to operate the facility autonomously.
On 6 September 2016, approval for the procurement of the GAF combat operations centre for the Counter DAESH mission in Incirlik (Turkey) was granted. Due to its high level of criticality and political significance, this fast-track initiative for operations was the only one to be prepared under the project authority of U3.1. The project involved substantial risks; they could however all be solved continuously and successfully in the course of project implementation.
The three directorates involved – specifically the U, I and L Directorates – concluded 15 individual contracts within four months to implement the project. Following the invitation to tender by the U Directorate in December 2016, the main contract with GSS+, the company set up by the consortium and comprising ESG GmbH and STEEP GmbH, was concluded on 28 April 2017. Since the German contingent relocated from Incirlik (Turkey) to Jordan, subsequent changes to the contracts became necessary which were all implemented successfully.
In mid-May 2018, the important milestone “acceptance by the emission control service of the Bundeswehr Centre for Cyber Security” was reached. The system was then presented to the Bundeswehr as the customer.
After that, the system was disassembled completely and packed into containers for redeployment to the Bundeswehr Communication and Information Systems Sector 1 in Fürstenfeldbruck to carry out IT system integration and testing (operational testing).
The overall system comprises in total 86 functional containers, each 20 ft long: 71 containers for the facility including equipment and an additional 15 containers for self sufficient power supply. The actual two-storey building block is made up of 40 HF proof functional containers and 20 HF proof hall containers.
The implementation of the field infrastructure measures in Jordan and the subsequent in-service support took place in close coordination with the Bundeswehr Joint Forces Operations Command J4, the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Infrastructure, Environmental Protection and Services Infra IV as well as the field accommodation project group. The construction project includes the foundation of the combat operations centre including connections to media and antennas, the supply with additional commercially available units and further comprises a fence surrounding the facility where access control is carried out.
The GAF COC MCD was erected from December 2018 onwards in Jordan on the Al Azraq Muwaffaq Salti Air Base (MSAB), in the German Camp Sonic. Upon completion, operational readiness was established.
Thanks to the excellent cooperation between those involved (industry, GAF, federal offices) and the high level of commitment, the implementation of the GAF COC MCD is on schedule. Cooperation is exemplary and characterised by mutual trust, the willingness to deliver on schedule and in accordance with the budget, and also by an excellent team spirit.
Future Generation of GPS and GALILEO Receivers (U5.4)
The only way to provide the Bundeswehr on a global scale with a common capability to determine positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) for its many tasks is the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In this context, reliable PNT operators/sensors are taken into consideration for Bundeswehr equipment so as to ensure protection against false signals. For this purpose, only encrypted services by GPS and – in future – GALILEO can be considered.
The Bundeswehr has so far used US-manufactured encrypted P(Y) code GPS receivers. Following the modernisation of the GPS system, a new M code will be introduced. The next generation of encrypted GPS receivers will become available in 2022/23. As a result, the GPS P(Y) code currently in use will not be available indefinitely.
This fact alone calls for conversion plans for the Bundeswehr systems. What is more, the European satellite navigation system GALILEO with PRS (Public Regulated Service) also offers encryption services (protection against deception attacks) and controlled access for sovereign tasks. Both GPS M code and GALILEO PRS feature a modernised cryptology with additional operational NAVWAR capabilities, including a higher robustness. The robustness of the Bundeswehr systems will increase significantly with the future use of GALILEO PRS, which will be introduced at the same time as the M code. Also, there will be less dependency on US deliveries (US ITAR GPS receivers, GPS encryption material).
As part of the encrypted GALILEO PRS service under the control of the EU council and the necessary cyber hardening of systems (including GNSS), cryptology (encryption modules) will be developed and manufactured at the national level. The European GALILEO system shall ensure that the EU is independent in this key technology.
The GPS M code equipment, by contrast, will be developed for the US Department of Defence (DoD) by approved US manufacturers. The Bundeswehr cannot define any requirements in this process.
On the basis of initial EU receiver studies, the Bundeswehr ordered first demonstrators of GALILEO PRS receivers in the context of an R&T study. In addition, the Bundeswehr defines the basis for the use of GALILEO PRS both at the interministerial and the international level. Together, requirements with regard to standards and key distribution will be defined.
To ensure that the new combined receivers are included in the budget planning according to demand as well, a demand analysis has already been performed. A first project for maritime and land systems is currently in the analysis phase.
Team of authors BAAINBw.