At Directorate T, the essential common technical, logistic and economic activities of the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw) are pooled and managed centrally.
Directorate T has a wide range of responsibilities:
- Controlling (e.g. research and technology projects, enhancing and enabling projects),
- Coordination (e.g. operations analysis, fast-track initiatives for operations),
- Support (e.g. BAAINBw executive groups, projects, other directorates, all logistic processes),
- external representation (e.g. other major organisational elements, agencies, departments and international organisations),
- licensing authority (e.g. transportation licenses), surveyor activities (e.g. accident investigations, price audits).
By combining the common specialist tasks within Directorate T, an essential element was established in the sequence of BAAINBw activities. In addition, Directorate T is deeply involved in the strategic topics of the Armaments Agenda, the strategic control of research and technology matters, and the In-Service Support Agenda. Consequently, it also plays an important role for efficient armaments management.
At Division T1 the following tasks have been combined: mission-related matters, overall coordination of research and technology (R&T) matters, international cooperation and project-related international departmental agreements, administrative as well as enabling and enhancing assistance.
The spectrum of Division T1 is complemented by tasks relating to policy and technology for Modelling and Simulation (M&S) and for Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E) as well as tasks relating to foreign defence material, national and international standardisation, and technical specifications.
Branch T1.1 is responsible for administrative and materiel assistance and concludes recycling and/or disposal contracts for selected directorates required for the further handling of materiel to be disposed of. This Branch is also in charge of coordinating the task of “enhancing and enabling programmes” within BAAINBw. The objective of enhancing and enabling assistance is to strengthen partner nations and allies in order to enable them to perform peace-building tasks and post-crisis rehabilitation as well as crisis prevention and management in their own responsibility and in a sustainable fashion.
Branch T1.2 is in charge of the negotiations and the finalisation of project-related international armaments cooperation with other nations, including the cooperation with different international organisations and agencies (NATO, EDA and OCCAR). Moreover, the Branch supervises the German side of the Foreign Military Sales programme of the US Department of Defence. Agreements have to be prepared and negotiated as part of the armaments cooperation, for example Memorandums of Understanding (MoU), Project Arrangements (PA) and Data Exchange Arrangements (DEA). FMS is in charge of procurement contracts for weapon systems (currently C-130J, PEGASUS) and associated spare parts via the US military procurement authorities.
Branch T1.3 coordinates and manages international cooperation in the field of common defence technological cooperation not linked to specific projects. This Branch is BAAINBw’s central point of contact in general matters of OCCAR and EDA as well as Bundeswehr-wide liaison activities. In addition, it is responsible for preparing technical specifications (TL) and for managing and coordinating Bundeswehr standardisation activities.
Branch T1.4 assumes coordinating and controlling responsibilities in different mission-related subject areas. On the one hand, this Branch coordinates the procurement of mission-essential and urgent demand; on the other hand, it manages mission review tasks. Thus, lessons learned can directly be used for further development of the materiel or for the provision of services. Moreover, this Branch coordinates decrees and orders relating to missions and exercises and within the civil-military cooperation framework to ensure that BAAINBw is adequately considered in these documents.
Branch T1.5 coordinates all BAAINBw activities in the area of defence research and technology (R&T). Common objectives of all R&T activities are:
- to ensure that the MoD has its own analysis and evaluation capability to identify new technologies and their effect regarding threats to and capabilities of the Bundeswehr; and
- to provide scientific and technological insights into all relevant fields of technology to permit practical, intelligent and cost-effective decisions about equipment.
In addition, Branch T1.5 is responsible for the evaluation of foreign defence material. The evaluation of foreign defence materiel provides a valuable basis for the analysis of capability gaps and the technical adaptation of Bundeswehr in-service systems in line with prevailing threats.
Branch T1.6 is responsible for Modelling and Simulation (M&S) as well as Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E) at BAAINBw. The M&S controlling authority coordinates existing and newly established Bundeswehr M&S standards both nationally and internationally (NATO, EDA). This authority also manages several R&T projects with regard to the application and in-service use of M&S to further develop the simulations infrastructure and the cross-linking of simulation systems and real systems for experimental and training purposes. Current topics are, for example, the use of non-lethal weapons, 3D printing within the Bundeswehr, artificial intelligence and human enhancement (improving the performance capability of soldiers with the help of exoskeletons or “smart” clothing).
When designing and using defence materiel, the system-related legal and Bundeswehr regulations with respect to occupational safety and health and environmental regulations are to be observed. Bundeswehr civilian and military staff are entitled to health protection in the workplace and humane working conditions in the same way as employees working in trade and industry. Furthermore, Bundeswehr activities must have no inadmissible impacts on the environment.
The project managers are responsible for the observance of regulations and standards concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection, ergonomic design of workstations and weapon system and ammunition safety. Project managers are supported and advised by Branches T2.1 to T2.4 “Product-related protection activities”.
Apart from these traditional responsibilities in the field of occupational safety and health, the focus is also increasingly on functional safety and/or software security when assessing system safety due to progress and dominance of smart system components in weapon systems.
In addition, Division T2 deals with the investigation of accidents during handling weapons and ammunition and the Officer for Design Safety of Ammunition and Firing Safety at BAAINBw is part of the team.
At present, the coordinator for 3D printing, who supports the Bundeswehr in all matters relating to this new technology in cooperation with the 3D printing centre located at the Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants in Erding, is part of Branch T2.4.
Branch T2.5 manages and monitors the recycling and disposal of Bundeswehr materiel. Special attention is paid to observing the provisions of the War Weapons Control Act, weapons laws and environmental laws. This Branch also is the link to the federal-owned VEBEG GmbH.
With its functional demonstrators, WTS as Branch T2.6 and as the archive of the office and defence documentation library contributes to preserving know-how in the armaments sector and, thus, supports the career training of civil servants as well as pre-deployment training of forces by lending out foreign weapons. When visiting the public exhibition in Koblenz, citizens who are interested in defence engineering can delve into military technology and its fundamental lines of development from the late 19th century to today by means of 2,500 exhibits.
Within Directorate T, Division T3 is currently concerned with the harmonisation of European pricing regulations. The aim is to pursue further harmonisation of pricing regulations within Europe in order to guarantee comparable contract auditing conditions on EU level, beyond national borders.
In the EUROMALE project, for example, it is the objective of Division T3 in cooperation with the PMO and OCCAR to prepare pricing provisions in cooperation agreements in such a way that international auditing teams can be employed in a transparent pricing process.
Division T3 is divided into the following branches:
- Cost Competence Centre (T3.1),
- Price Auditing Policy/Common Price Auditing (T3.2),
- Price Auditing Airframe/Engine (T3.3),
- Price Auditing Materiel Maintenance of Armed Services, Missiles, Other Aeronautical Equipment (T3.4),
- Price Auditing Electronics, Sensor Systems (T3.5) and
- Price Auditing Weapons and Ammunitions, Wheeled and Tracked Vehicles, Ships and Vessels, Other Equipment (T3.6).
The task of the cost competence centre is to provide support for the economic execution and implementation of projects and organisational measures in all CPM phases by means of
- parametric and calculated cost estimates,
- efficiency analyses,
- assessment of alternative forms of satisfaction of demand and
- review and staffing of phase documents.
In particular cases, additional cost-effectiveness evaluations are conducted outside of CPM. Furthermore, T3.1 is BAAINBw’s central point of contact for matters regarding life cycle cost management.
The tasks of Branch T3.2 range from
- central contract control of price audits
- dealing with requests regarding fundamental aspects of pricing legislation, business administration and cost audits,
- developing work instructions and guidelines for the BAAINBw price audit branches and price negotiations,
- model contract price and cost arrangements to
- cooperation with the pricing agencies of the German states,
- support to multinational organizations and NATO program offices and
- official assistance for foreign governments.
The operative price audit branches T3.3 to T3.6 evaluate, in terms of technical and economical aspects and in accordance with price law, whether cost prices are appropriate. For this evaluation, they use detailed cost data and documents and assess the quantities and valuations.
In Division T4 “Common Activities Relating to Expenditures for Equipment, In-Service Use and Logistics” responsibilities of a primarily common technical, economical and logistic nature have been combined.
The tasks of Division T4 focus on project support in managing the logistics project element in all life-cycle phases of defence materiel. It serves as the link to the Bundeswehr Logistics Command and is, as such, essential service provider in the implementation of product-related logistic processes. Furthermore, in cooperation with the Logistics Command BAAINBw strongly contributes to the tailoring and further development of the Bundeswehr Logistics System.
Branch T4.1 assumes basic Equipment, In-Service Use and Logistics tasks and, within the framework of technical support tasks, advises the projects with regard to the logistics project element. Distinct from Branch T4.1 are the Branches T4.2 to T4.5, which provide operational support to project directorates and agencies.
The Branch T4.2 provides the project divisions with technical advice in all issues regarding materiel management (for example, management and prediction of inventory additions) as well as condemnation of defence materiel. In addition, the appointed materiel condemnation officer makes conclusive decisions about all condemnations.
Branch T.4.3 maintains the catalogue of materiel planning objects for the Bundeswehr across organisations, thus providing the basis for materiel target planning in all agencies. Furthermore, the Branch advises and supports the project directorates of BAAINBw with regard to codification of materiel (on individual request), is responsible for user administration in the “Complete Equipment Schedule Annex Sheet” data processing procedure, assigns project identifiers and defines technical responsibilities for supply items.
Branch T4.4 provides operational support to agencies subordinate to BAAINBw
(Bundeswehr technical centres and research institutes) and assumes technical supervision of these agencies with regard to their logistic tasks in the execution of orders, materiel management, maintenance and equipment planning.
Branch T4.5 is responsible for the management of imports based on procurement contracts of BAAINBw and its subordinate units, the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Infrastructure, Environmental Protection and Services, the Bundeswehr universities and the Bundeswehr Geoinformation Office. It is also responsible for exports/shipments for disposal and Bundeswehr materiel transfers to other countries including requests to the Federal Office for Economic Affairs and Export Control, customs clearance and export control at BAAINBw. In addition, the Branch is responsible for and manages transport activities, fundamental transport issues as well as Bundeswehr materiel loans, free-of-charge transfers and the end use of defence materiel as well as maintenance activities for equipment loaned by HIL GmbH.
In addition to these primary tasks, Division T4 is involved in several special organisations and task forces, for example, the subproject for the optimisation of the spare part and exchange part management and the development of principles for the preparation/management of the project-related logistic concept as part of the In-Service Use Agenda, the re-structuring of the fixed logistics facilities (oIE 2019+), the preparation and continuous updating of the General Publication for the Performance of Tasks in the In-Service phase.
Team of authors BAAINBw.