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A total of six defence technology departments, two military science departments and the Naval Arsenal are subordinated to the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw).

In addition, the German Liaison Office for Defense Materiel, USA/Canada, is also part of the BAAINBw.

Bundeswehr Technical Center for Land-Based Vehicle Systems, Engineer and General Field Equipment (WTD 41)

WTD 41 in Trier and its branch offices have broad competences as regards wheeled and tracked vehicles, propulsion systems and chassis components, electric-chemical energy sources and stores, vehicle electrics, engineer vehicles, POL and field camp technology, soil mechanics, hydraulics, air-conditioning engineering and compressed gas technology. Thanks to its technically highly qualified personnel and its unique infrastructure WTD 41 has what it takes to execute and evaluate trials and examinations of ground vehicles and their components. Tasks are mainly assigned by the BAAINBw as well as by further customers from Germany and abroad.

At the moment WTD 41 has 463 employees. Moreover, WTD 41 offers vocational training in the occupations “Kfz-Mechatronikerin/Mechatroniker” (automotive mechatronics engineer) and “Elektronikerin/Elektroniker für Geräte und Systeme” (electrician for equipment and systems).

Current Studies
1. Operation of Vehicles with Modern Exhaust Emission Control Systems (Euro V/Euro VI) with Highly Sulfurous Fuels
Modern commercial vehicles that comply with the Euro V and Euro VI emission standards require diesel fuel which corresponds to the European standard DIN EN 590 for the proper functioning of their engines and the exhaust technology. As regards the procurement of new vehicles the Bundeswehr, too, resorts to commercially available modern vehicles. The use of modern vehicles becomes problematic, however, within the scope of NATO’s Single Fuel Concept (SFC) and Single Fuel Policy (SFP). The SFC stipulates that diesel engines of military equipment must generally be suitable for operation with kerosene (F-34). Modern fuel-lubricated diesel injection systems are subject to enormous wear and tear in this process since kerosene has a low lubricity in comparison to diesel fuel. Against this backdrop, NATO grants its members the permission to upgrade F-34 by means of the lubricity improver S-1750 to become F-63. Furthermore, the sulfur content of kerosene, and thus F-63 as well, might be considerably higher in comparison to commercial diesel fuel in accordance with DIN EN 590 (desired value in accordance with DIN EN 590: ≤ 10 mg/kg). The high sulfur content results in noncompliance with the legal exhaust fume values and in damage to components within the engine that are subjected to exhaust fumes as well as to exhaust emission control systems. If, for logistic reasons, it is required to resort to locally available diesel fuel with increased sulfur content, these framework conditions will have a particular impact. In order to examine the effects of highly sulfurous fuels on the compatibility of engines with state-of-the-art exhaust technology WTD 41 was tasked by BAAINBw with performing a test series comprising driving tests as well as tests on the agency’s engine test beds.

The MELLS Weapon System
The MELLS Weapon System Has Been Successfully Tested by the Bundeswehr for Use with the Infantry Combat Vehicle (ICV). The infantry combat vehicles of the Bundeswehr (PUMA and MARDER) shall in the future be equipped with an efficient anti-armour capability. To this end, tests with the MELLS weapon system (multirole light guided-missile system) were conducted with both vehicle systems.

Vibrations of tracked vehicles pose a particular challenge to MELLS. Therefore, both ICV equipped with the MELLS weapon system were subjected to vehicle dynamics testing under near operational conditions. The infrastructure of WTD 41 provided ideal conditions for this purpose. Periodic functional and reliability tests confirmed the suitability of MELLS for use with the infantry combat vehicles. The successful tests form the basis for providing the mechanised infantry forces with the required capabilities.

The LEGUAN Armoured Assault Bridge
WTD 41 has been testing the new armoured system LEGUAN assault bridge. The assault bridge is an armoured bridging system on the running gear of the LEOPARD 2 main battle tank that comprises two movable bridges of 14 metres each and a bridge with a length of 26 metres. The bridges are made of high-strength aluminium and enable vehicles up to a load class of MLC 80 to cross water or terrain gaps. The system also encompasses a protected tractor trailer for transporting the bridge elements and a computer-based training facility.

Before the system can be delivered to the armed forces, however, extensive examinations have to be conducted. At the facilities of WTD 41 in Koblenz, Trier and Föhren the system’s performance data will be checked. To this end, several bridge pits are available on the extensive test area. This way it is possible to test all operational scenarios that may occur later on under various terrain conditions.

Semi-symmetric numerical model of pressure expansion inside the LBS (Photo: WTD 52)

Apart from conducting field engineering trials of the bridges and their launching equipment WTD 41 specialist personnel examines other components as well; this includes determining vehicle-specific characteristic data, trailer tests for road and rail transport, automotive electrics, the hydraulic system as well as ergonomic aspects.

Permanent tasks with operational relevance include the testing of POL supply and engineer equipment prior to delivery to the theatres of operations and the weighing of air transport containers (with contents). Furthermore, WTD 41 has been actively involved in the presentation of the Bundeswehr at fairs and exhibitions within the framework of recruiting campaigns as well as in supporting the technical service career training and supervising student interns.

Bundeswehr Technical Center for Protective and Special Technologies (WTD 52)

The core competence areas of WTD 52 are the fields of both direct and indirect protection. Their focus is on ensuring survivability on the battlefield and preventive defense measures against asymmetric threats. This includes protection of infrastructure against asymmetric threats and ammunition storage safety, numeric simulation, indirect protection (camouflage, concealment and deception), non-lethal weapons (NLW) and physical detection of improvised explosive devices (IED).

LBS with compressed air bottles serving as the driving force

Special technologies include a variety of different topics that can be dealt with in an ideal manner due to a year-long build-up of competences and specific conditions of infrastructure prevailing at WTD 52. This includes simulation of nuclear blast waves, aerodynamic load tests, mobile antenna supporting structures, primary batteries with a high risk potential, detection of landmines and underwater testing.

WTD 52 benefits from particular geographic and geological conditions which are unequalled in this combination. The underground facility in the “Reiteralpe” massif, the Bundeswehr cableway and the alpine test sites and demolition ranges at an altitude of approximately 1,700 m all represent manifold opportunities for research and compliance demonstration.

Urban areas increasingly turn into a theatre of armed conflicts. This has far-reaching consequences for the local civilian population and a considerable impact on Bundeswehr operations as well. WTD 52 contributes in multiple ways so as to provide the best possible protection for our soldiers operating in urban scenarios. The risk potential of air blasts following a massive detonation in an urban area is of special interest in this regard. In this context, WTD 52 operates Europe’s largest air blast simulator, called Large Blast Simulator (LBS), which can accommodate objects up to the size of a small building. The air blasts are generated by abruptly opening compressed air bottles. The resulting effect is enhanced by the tunnel-like shape of the test stand area and, thus, blasts can be created that equal those of nuclear weapons or detonations with several tons of explosives.

Trial setup within the LBS

In the framework of an international cooperation with the French Centre D’Etudes de Gramat (CEG), it was possible, for the first time, to use the “retroreflective shadowscopy” method for making shock fronts visible on a large scale. In order to do so, images were recorded at a frequency of 31,000 images per second with an exposure time of 10 µs. This made it possible to detect in detail the shock front, which was moving at a propagation velocity of 350 m/s.

The two partner nations both benefit from this cooperation: CEG intends to use the obtained results to validate numerical simulation codes; WTD 52, on the other hand, gains additional insights into pressure expansion in the context of military operations in urban terrain (MOUT) scenarios.

From a strategic point of view, the 2016 White Paper on German Security Policy and the Future of the Bundeswehr focuses on taking an increasingly interconnected approach and assuming responsibility in key areas of security policy through international partnerships and cooperation. An increasingly interconnected approach can help in building trust at a political and operational level, especially in the areas of multinational test and evaluation projects as well as procurement projects. This is the required foundation on which national capabilities can be developed in a harmonised way. In addition, it can serve as the basis for improvement in the area of interoperability of organisations, technology and systems within the armaments sector.

WTD 52 used these strategic requirements as a reference point to create a pilot project on the strengthening of the agency’s international and interagency profile (STEC – Strengthening of Test and Evaluation Centers) intended to last three years.

A new element for management and marketing (M&M) was established in order to implement projects. It helps incorporate the agency’s strategic goals into operational planning and implementation activities by using recognised management methods. In addition, the M&M element represents the main point of contact for external customers and partners and, thus, provides them with information from a single source. This concept of one face to the customer is an example of active customer orientation and serves as the basis of a consistent flow of information. When the project comes to an end (in late 2019) the obtained results will be assessed and conclusions will be drawn concerning the direction in which the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Protective and Special Technologies is headed in the future.

Bundeswehr Technical Center for Aircraft and Aeronautical Equipment (WTD 61)

Being the Bundeswehr’s technical center of excellence for military aviation, WTD 61 in Manching conducts in-flight substantiation and technical compliance demonstrations in national and international flight test projects. It is responsible for the qualification and technical evaluation of developments as well as for the assessment and testing of airborne weapon systems and their subsystems. For these tasks, it relies on the performance of flight tests and ground tests in accordance with internationally recognised standards using own test aircraft, specially trained personnel as well as test facilities, a reserved airspace for testing and measurement procedures.

In order to simulate absolute darkness, a specifically designed mobile darkroom at WTD 61 is used in the current testing of night vision goggles in the A400M aircraft. (Photo: WTD 61)

Its core tasks specifically include military and mission-relevant issues like

  • air-to-air refueling,
  • airdropping systems,
  • integration of new weapons and defensive aid suites,
  • night vision capability,
  • electromagnetic compatibility,
  • laser protection,
  • testing of new sensor and communications technology,
  • UAV tests,
  • and compliance demonstration activities during the adaptation of state-of-the-art medical equipment for all
    relevant Bundeswehr aircraft types.

As an example, the first laser- and GPS-guided “GBU-48” bombs constitute another step towards the EUROFIGHTER’s air-to-ground capability. In order to verify weapon integration, a major flight campaign was conducted in Sweden under the direction of WTD 61. This was followed by a functionality verification of a new radar software including firings of AMRAAM air-to-air guided missiles on the Hebrides using a WTD 61 EUROFIGHTER aircraft that was specifically instrumented for these tests.

Qualification flights conducted by WTD 61 with the TIGER attack helicopter were performed with unguided rockets after installation of a modified engine assembly and with the STINGER guided missile for missile qualification. In addition, flights were conducted in support of the user to verify failures that occurred, for example, during the jettison of the “HOT” guidance wire. Moreover, WTD 61 was actively involved in the weapon integration by industry of M134D Gatling and MG6 into the H145M Light Utility Helicopter – Special Operation Forces (LUH SOF). As part of a hazard analysis of these weapons under operational conditions, ground and flight tests were conducted at day and night, including tests of flare ejection and night vision goggles. In addition, noise measurements were conducted to protect the crews against potential hearing impairments, and evidence was provided for the approval of fast roping and repelling procedures of Special Forces for this helicopter. As a potential successor model to the SMOKEY 5000 litre fire-fighting equipment currently used in the Bundeswehr, the BAMBI BUCKET BBTHL7600 was successfully tested and evaluated in a flight test with regard to its suitability for employment in the CH-53 medium transport helicopter. More tests are envisaged in the course of the upcoming procurement procedure.

Gradually, all aircraft of the FMOD Special Air Mission Wing which are mostly used by the Federal President and by members of the German government (the so-called “White Fleet”) will be protected against surface-to-air guided missiles by a LAIRCM (Large Aircraft Infrared Counter Measures) system. The required test missions that have already been conducted for the A319 and A340 aircraft have now also been successfully conducted for the Global 5000 aircraft. At present, preparations are being made for the expansion of the fleet by the A321 aircraft. The installation of a similar system into the A400M weapon system is currently being prepared.

One part of the operational test for the follow-on capability of the A400M transport aircraft is the evaluation of its air refueling capability. Following a ground test with a TORNADO receiver aircraft to test the refueling compatibility with a A400M tanker, air-to-air refueling flights were conducted. At present, air-to-air refueling flights are being conducted for a pairing clearance with the EUROFIGHTER weapon system.

An urgent operational requirement existed to provide the TORNADO aircraft with a night viewing capability. The series of tests required for issuing the Authorisation for Military Flight Operations was successfully conducted. The compliance demonstration for integrating a low-level light intensifier into the A400M was performed at the planned “Night Vision Competence Center” of the Bundeswehr, WTD 61. WTD 61 is currently also evolving into a competence centre for unmanned aircraft systems. In cooperation with industry as the developer, reconnaissance and scouting drones for accompanying military missions (e.g. MIDEA) are tested and evidence for the approval of new or further developments of unmanned systems of all sizes are provided.

The upcoming introduction of various new airborne weapon systems like the heavy transport helicopter, the SAR successor helicopter to Bell UH-1D as well as unmanned systems like RPAS, the maintenance of the strategic air transport capability or the development of new aircraft and aeronautical equipment (e.g. engines) will increasingly require the know-how and flying proficiency of WTD 61 also in the future.

The Bundeswehr Technical Center for Ships and Naval Weapons, Maritime Techno-logy and Research (WTD 71)

The Bundeswehr Technical Center for Ships and Naval Weapons, Maritime Technology and Research (WTD 71) is responsible for tasks in all areas of maritime defense technology and defense research. Thus, it provides the technical expertise in maritime research and development required to provide suitable and safe maritime equipment to the Bundeswehr. At the same time, WTD 71 is the central technical-scientific authority of the Federal Government tasked with departmental research within the naval armaments sector.
The objective of all WTD 71 activities is to provide reliable and operational systems and equipment to the German Navy.

With its integrated capability network of technical expertise, maritime scientific competence, knowledge of methods as well as technical and scientific trial/measurement infrastructure, WTD 71 forms the link between the products (“ship” as an overall system, the platform and deployment system portions, systems, individual appliances, equipment), the military capability requirements of the German Navy, the project management of the German Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw) as well as defence industry and external academic facilities (institutes, universities). A particular strength of WTD 71 is its very international and interdepartmental profile, which leads to a variety of international cooperative projects.

The premises of WTD 71 in Surendorf (Photo: WTD 71)

The location of WTD 71 has a long tradition. The Imperial German Navy already tested its torpedoes in the Eckernförde Bay and built a torpedo experimental station in 1912. Today, 660 staff members at WTD use their know-how to develop, test and procure naval weapon systems. Scientists and engineers, qualified and experienced technicians, tradesmen and mariners have made WTD 71 the centre of professional expertise in the field of maritime defence technology. WTD 71 comprises a total of nine facilities located all over the state of Schleswig-Holstein.

The agency’s core tasks include:
Project Support
The core task of WTD 71 is to support projects and conduct compliance demonstrations for naval armament systems and equipment in all CPM phases (performance demonstrations, integrated compliance demonstrations) as well as operational suitability tests under maritime service conditions.

Maritime Research
Establishing, extending and maintaining the required assessment and advice capability by conducting research projects under its own responsibility as well as awarding, supporting and evaluating research and technology studies in all fields of naval armament.

Technological Investigations
Experimental and analytical investigations (experiments, demonstrators, studies, market analyses, evaluations, simulations) of maritime defence materiel in all phases of the development process of defence materiel, also under maritime environmental conditions, in particular, to determine the productibility, suitability and performance capability of appliances and systems.

In-Service Support
Expert support of in-service naval weapon systems (such as magnetic or acoustic ranging).
An additional task is the active cooperation in bilateral or multilateral organisations such as the German-Dutch Centre for Ship Signature Management (CSSM) as well as cooperation or representation of Germany at international organisations such as UN, NATO, EDA etc.
The tasks of the agency are distributed across five divisions.

The “Ship as a Weapon System” division focuses on the integration of individual components and subsystems into a functional and operationally safe maritime weapon system. This includes primarily test and compliance demonstration activities and the determination of additional operational parameters and functional limits. At present, the frigates of the new F125 generation are undergoing trials.

The “Ship Technology, Combat Survivability” division is in charge of naval engineering tasks related to the development, procurement and use of ships and boats of the German Navy. This includes the traditional shipbuilding disciplines, main propulsion engineering, auxiliary systems engineering and marine electrical engineering as well as a special field of activity dealing with shock and vibration resistance.

The main tasks of the “Reconnaissance, Effects, Force Protection” division include the investigation and provision of technologies for further development of and defence against maritime weapons. Employees working in the field of underwater weapons have to deal with vessel technology, with a particular focus on hydrodynamics, propulsion technologies, energy accumulators, metrology and control engineering. In addition, they work on underwater sensors, including the associated signal processing for minehunting.
The “Sensor Technology, Signatures, German CSSM Representative” division is in charge of military maritime sensors and ship signatures, which are of particular importance with respect to passive ship protection and sensor development throughout Europe. It also contributes German staff to the international “Center for Ship Signature Management (DEU-NLD)”.

The “Underwater Detection and Communication” division performs tasks related to SONAR, waterborne, structureborne and airborne noise and underwater communication. Acoustic propagation and backscatter modelling methods are used to make predictions of the performance of sonar and underwater communication systems and to assess alternatives. Studying the oceanographic, meteorological and geological influence of the maritime environment completes the division’s range of activities.

In addition, WTD 71 operates a number of noteworthy measurement and test facilities, some of which are unique in Europe:

  • Measuring points for magnetic measurement and treatment of ships and components, including a large field simulator for ships of up to 1,000 tonnes displacement
  • Earth’s magnetic field simulator
  • Acoustic measurement points in shallow and deep waters
  • Underwater and above-water tracking ranges
  • Test area for underwater demolitions
  • Torpedo firing range and firing lane
  • Test facilities for environmental simulation
  • Engineering test stands
  • Measuring site for antenna models
  • EMC measuring chamber (EMC = electromagnetic compatibility)
  • Test sites for air and surface targets and projectiles
  • Fleet of five research and trial ships
  • Horizontal and vertical shock test facilities (with a nominal load of up to 3 tonnes)

The main focus of the current work is on the projects Class 180 Multi-Role Combat Ship (MKS 180), Class 125 Frigate (F 125), Class 130 corvettes (K 130 first and second lot), operational training centre (frigate/combat support ship) and Navy procedural training, new generation Class 212 submarines (U212 CD – Norway/Germany), Class 332 minehunter with drone control capability (MJ 332 CL), and WTD 71 defence fleet (STS and SVK projects).

In the near future, more new naval projects will be added: Training ships for the Navy, WTD 71 defence fleet (SVS project), tankers, Modification of tug boats, and the midlife conversion U212 (first lot).

Bundeswehr Technical Center for Information Technology and Electronics (WTD 81)

Based in the Bavarian town of Greding, WTD 81 is the center of expertise for weapon system-related information technology (IT) and electronics of the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr). As an agency under the remit of the BAAINBw, WTD 81 is providing support in all phases of the (amended) CPM.

Its core tasks include project monitoring and support, the performance of specialised technical tasks, the control of research and technology projects and the management of projects in the fields of navigation systems and commercial off-the-shelf measuring and test equipment.

WTD 81 can rely on vast technical knowhow in the following areas:

  • Standards, protocols, procedures and technologies for information processing, information transfer and IT security in weapon systems, command and control systems and support systems
  • Information collection, reconnaissance components and technologies (radar, optronics including the associated signal processing)
  • Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), lightning protection and electrical safety
  • Electronic warfare (EW)
  • Interoperability of command and control information (C2I) systems and command, control, information and weapons control systems
  • Integration of IT into platforms
  • Technical examination of overall systems as well as examination of systems of systems, i.e. individual systems interacting in a network under near-operational scenarios
  • Radar and identification technology
  • Intelligent weapon systems, homing technology, fire control technology
  • Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
  • Navigation
  • Materials and technologies for semiconductors

In order to accomplish its tasks, the Bundeswehr Technical Center for Information Technology and Electronics is operating laboratories equipped with highly qualified staff as well as state-of-the-art infrastructure and technology.

These facilities include one of Europe’s largest fully shielded test facilities for the study of electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic effects.

This is where military systems and electronic components are tested for compliance with the limit values laid down in standards. The tested weapon systems must neither be vulnerable to interference from external electromagnetic sources nor must they inadmissibly influence internal systems.

In its capacity as EMC test center, WTD 81 is the central point of contact for all matters of electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic effects in the Bundeswehr.

Aerial picture of WTD 81 in Greding (Photos/Graphic: BAAINBw)

One of the world’s largest domed buildings, measuring 45 meters in diameter, is located in the immediate vicinity of the EMC test facility and houses a unique target simulation system. This “target simulation dome” provides an environment for hardware-in-the-loop simulations of optical and optronic components and systems. The test objects are exposed to scenarios and targets covering different spectral ranges from UVB to long-wave IR. Two powerful motion simulators are available to simulate the motions of test objects.
The modern Center for Interoperability, Network Centric Warfare and Simulation (Zentrum für Interoperabilität, NetOpFü und Simulation, ZINS) offers the possibility to carry out multi-project networking experiments in all stages of the amended CPM to study interoperability and performance in a system network. To that end, ZINS is equipped with a large media wall, an audio system, laboratories, multi-purpose rooms and a powerful network with numerous connection options. It offers very flexible possibilities for test setups, parallel analysis activities, meetings, documentation of results and reviews.
Being competent, innovative and efficient, WTD 81 is an important economic factor in the Bavarian region of Middle Franconia. The potential of its personnel and its well-established areas of activity qualify for making it a future-oriented high-tech center with high-quality workplaces.

From the wide range of activities currently being conducted, two projects are presented below:

The New FLYCATCHER MK2 Flight Calibration Radar
In order to test airborne weapon systems, WTD 81 has a high-precision radar at its disposal to measure technical parameters. Since the 1990s, the radar system has been used to support other measuring systems with the various tasks to be performed in connection with electronic warfare (EW). The resulting intensive use of this radar over many years made it necessary to procure a replacement and thus a new, modern radar system for future measuring tasks. The FLYCATCHER MK2 technical solution produced by Thales won the European call for bids in 2014. The contract which was concluded was to include important functionalities for detecting and tracking aerial targets as well as interfaces for the evaluation of measuring results.

FLYCATCHER MK 2

Originally, FLYCATCHER was developed as a weapon system to engage air targets at close range. As a highly mobile system it was intended for rapid deployment on two trucks and therefore consists of two containers: a sensor container, which houses an air surveillance radar, a tracking radar and several optical sensors, and an operator container accommodating two workstations for the operators. Thanks to the air-conditioning systems and the auxiliary power units available in the containers, the system may be operated independently from any infrastructure.

The most important technical parameters include an air surveillance radar in the I frequency band with the capability to detect aerial targets at a distance of up to 50 km, a tracking radar in the Ka frequency band with a range of up to 25 km, optical sensors and lasers for automatic tracking, and a fire control system for the use of air defence guns and surface-to-air missiles.

Due to the planned future use of the FLYCATCHER at WTD 81, it was necessary to define the retrofit of additional video and data interfaces, to adapt the communication infrastructure and to implement an IFF system for mode S (civilian use) and mode 5 (military use) target identification.
With its new functionalities and capabilities, the FLYCATCHER represents a powerful measurement platform for conducting investigations in cooperation with other military organisational units and Bundeswehr technical centers.

EMC assessment in the large test facility of WTD 81

The Analysis of Large Heterogeneous Information and Communication Networks
The flexibility in information supply which is increasingly required for Bundeswehr operations must already be considered in the development phase (concept development, synthesis and analysis) of information and communication technology (ICT) systems. Equipment tests performed to date which involved a small number of participants (nodes) no longer meet the demands of the digitalisation of land-based operations (D-LBO), as the interdependence and interaction between the different systems under analysis can only be analysed to a limited extent. All nodes existing in the system need to be examined in the context of the overall system, because the overall system is more than the “sum” of its individual systems and also includes their relationships among each other. Operability may be validated in operational tests with real platforms and equipment in the field, but the observation of all relevant effects (verification) under field conditions necessitates a significant logistical effort both for man and material. Moreover, reproducibility in mobile scenarios is being stymied by at least one space-time correlation, unless the system network is limited to dimensions which can also be assembled in a lab under realistic conditions.

With its analysis and test environment (Analyse- und Testumgebung, AuT), WTD 81 is able to offer a solution which meets the following key test requirements:

  • reproducibility,
  • centralised management, stimulation and control of all system components,
  • observability of all statuses of the individual systems in the system network with co-active effect chains,
  • centralised structured management of data on the configurations and parameters of all systems with their respective context as well as on test procedures and test results,
  • high degree of scalability (up to the equivalent of a brigade),
  • highly realistic conditions,
  • real-time capability,
  • applicability to all questions/suggested solutions in the entire life cycle of IT services,
    intuitive user guidance and presentation of results according to specific applications.

The completely virtualised test bed of the AuT analysis and test environment, which is complemented by simulated correlations, may be used if all relevant aspects of actual system behaviour are fully reproduced in context. The verification of this assumption and use of radio networked components, in particular, require a test and analysis framework which allows for the integration of real communication components and provides technically sophisticated channel emulators for connecting these components in various frequency bands.

EMC test facility and target simulation dome

This is the purpose of the Simulation, Test and Reference Environment for Mobile Operations (SumO) which is currently being set up at WTD 81 to serve as a demonstrator for a system context completely controllable by technical means. SumO offers dedicated labs for every communication technology in which real devices under test (DUT) can be “clamped into” a suitable test frame. This procedure allows real communication systems to network together in realistically large scenarios and to reveal all real irregularities (for example in the event of channel access, interference, multipath propagation, fading). All stimulations and emulations from the field of transmission and motion physics are performed in a synchronised manner. The test frames allow for the centralised configuration and control of all DUTs and link up the different types of ICTs to form a technical effect chain. In addition, the AuT embedded in SumO serves the purpose of extending the test scope by virtualised components if real DUTs are available in insufficient quantity.

With its AuT, SumO is supporting IT projects in all stages of the (amended) CPM procedure. To that end, a structured process is established with the objectives of conducting proof of concept of new technologies at an early stage, validating suggested solutions and performing integrated compliance demonstrations. Should irregularities occur in systems in use, the flexibility offered by SumO also allows reproducing the prevailing conditions in the best possible, controlled way to assist in the efficient identification and resolution of problems. By integrating components of the fielded systems which are part of the Bundeswehr IT system into the SumO test environment, SumO becomes the technical reference for this system of systems, which can provide valuable input for the targeted further development and harmonisation of the Bundeswehr IT system.

Analysis and test environment (AuT)

The Bundeswehr Technical Center for Weapons and Ammunition (WTD 91)

Tasks and Facilities
WTD 91 is the main Bundeswehr proving facility for weapons and ammunition and has the sole specialist competence in this field within the entire armaments organization.
Apart from all weapon and ammunition inspections, the specific requirements of the individual weapons carrier regarding weapons and fire control, protection and effects, reconnaissance, and target recognition also form part of the agency’s research.
Moreover, the technical center holds significant competences in the fields of acoustics, optics, optronics, laser technology, battlefield reconnaissance, simulation engineering, geoinformation, special engineer infrastructure, and measurement engineering.
The agency’s excellence center for explosives is the only authority in the armaments organization that is responsible for the qualification and safety evaluation of military explosives as well as for the central ammunition surveillance in the Bundeswehr.

Current Projects
PUMA Project Support

MELLS trial with PUMA IFV (Photo: Bundeswehr)

WTD 91 is the main Bundeswehr proving facility for weapons and ammunition and has the sole specialist competence in this field within the entire armaments organization.
Apart from all weapon and ammunition inspections, the specific requirements of the individual weapons carrier regarding weapons and fire control, protection and effects, reconnaissance, and target recognition also form part of the agency’s research.
Moreover, the technical center holds significant competences in the fields of acoustics, optics, optronics, laser technology, battlefield reconnaissance, simulation engineering, geoinformation, special engineer infrastructure, and measurement engineering.
The agency’s excellence center for explosives is the only authority in the armaments organization that is responsible for the qualification and safety evaluation of military explosives as well as for the central ammunition surveillance in the Bundeswehr.

Gun Trials
In 2018, the qualification of 9 x 19mm ball ammunition cartridges and ball tracer ammunition cartridges, both conforming to REACH (Regulation EC No 1907/2006 – Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), was successfully conducted within the area of activity of the national inspection authority for infantry weapon ammunition, a part of Branch 420 at WTD 91. The qualification of the new 5.56 x 45mm ball ammunition and ball tracer ammunition, also both conforming to REACH, is currently under way. This comprehensive task, which was begun only recently, will keep the national inspection authority busy for quite some time to come. The long-term goal is to keep the different types of infantry ammunition free of substances prohibited by the REACH regulation. Further tasks of the national inspection authority included assistance in the inspections after special incidents, work in the framework of ammunition surveillance and support of the responsible specialist department at the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support in terms of technical matters.

The Bundeswehr Research Institute for Protective Technologies and CBRN Protection (WIS)

WIS is a departmental research facility concerned with the protection of Bundeswehr service members against the effects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction. Within the framework of its research activities, WIS develops the technical-scientific fundamentals required for this purpose and contributes to covering the demand for CBRN and fire protection equipment. As a service provider for policy-makers and the general public, WIS ensures the capability of assessing CBRN weapons.

Considering the fact that Bundeswehr personnel are more and more assigned to deployments outside Germany and experts are sent to crisis countries for advising and training purposes, the aspect of protecting the soldiers against such threats has become more and more pressing.

Research and development with regard to subjects such as the quick and safe identification of active ingredients within explosive ordnance disposal activities, checking and evaluation of unknown substances by means of chemical-analytical methods, decontamination, cleaning of potable water and handling of contaminated wastewater are essential for ensuring health and the defence capabilities of field units that are deployed to war zones and need to be prepared for the use of unconventional weapons. Detecting High-Power Electromagnetics (HPEM), which might impair the functional capability of Bundeswehr electronic systems or even damage these systems, and developing adequate safeguards are other important research tasks to be performed by WIS.
The approximately 200 WIS employees who mainly have a qualification in natural sciences are working in laboratories, pilot plants and facilities for full-scale testing on all subject-specific issues.

Latest Examples for the Work of WIS
Verification of the ban on chemical weapons: WIS is contributing to the investigation of the incidents in Iraq and Syria and – by means of its highly specialized laboratory – provides essential findings that serve as a basis for political decisions.

Detection of biohazards: Besides taking samples (also for forensic purposes), the range of tasks includes all aspects with regard to equipment from measuring instruments to protected and deployable high-security infrastructure.

Non-contact detection of warfare agents and chemicals: From remote detection to camp protection and to surface measurements by means of spectroscopic methods, WIS develops and tests future technology. In the process, it examines both autonomous detection systems and sensor networks on various platforms.

Graphic: WIS

Protective equipment: Missions in hot climatic zones and new threat scenarios require, as far as clothing is concerned, physiologically improved protective equipment offering a higher level of protection. The fundamental studies necessary for this purpose are being conducted at WIS and laboratory prototypes are being optimised in close cooperation with industry. Following the introduction into service, accompanying Government Quality Assurance is conducted to ensure the high performance potential of the equipment.

Ecofriendly decontamination: For the decontamination of biological or chemical warfare agents, radioactive fallout and toxic industry chemicals, WIS is testing procedures and equipment, some of which require few chemicals or none at all. In doing so, special emphasis is put on safe detoxification as well as preservation of functions of devices, such as electronic devices.

Water treatment: Mobile procedures for the production of service and potable water from various types of raw water are tested for retaining contaminants as well as operational safety.

Electromagnetic effects: Electromagnetic pulses (EMP) generated in nuclear weapon detonations or other high-power electromagnetic (HPEM) fields are capable of jamming and/or destroying all types of unprotected electronic components within a large radius. WIS examines the protection level of military equipment, systems and infrastructure on the basis of measurements and conducts research into improved protection measures.
Fire protection: WIS activities focus on fire detection and fire suppression by means of automatic fire extinguishing systems incorporated in weapon systems. Besides, ecofriendly fire extinguishing agents are developed for Bundeswehr-specific applications.
Northern Hazardous Substance Measurement Office: WIS supports safe Bundeswehr activities by investigating and evaluating hazardous substances in work areas or the environment.

Central collection point: At WIS, Bundeswehr radioactive waste is conditioned for later final disposal and put into interim storage.

“Researching – Testing – Advising – For the safety of our soldiers” – according to this slogan WIS, with its versatile spectrum of tasks, makes a contribution to future-oriented, functional equipment of the Bundeswehr. With its scientific findings, WIS makes an important contribution to CBRN protection.

Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants (WIWeB)

As a Bundeswehr research facility, the Bundeswehr Research Institute for Materials, Fuels and Lubricants (WIWeB) develops the necessary technological and scientific foundations with regard to the safety and reliability as well as the evaluation of materials, fuels and lubricants, chemicals and the clothing and personal equipment of soldiers. Besides its focus on these main issues, the institute is also responsible for matters related to the safety of chemicals, occupational safety and health, as well as environmental protection. WIWeB is part of the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw) and employs a total of about 230 people at its locations in Erding (headquarters) and Wilhelmshaven.

News
In 2018, WIWeB as a research facility received a positive evaluation from the Federal Government’s Science Council and was credited with mostly very good and even outstanding accomplishments in research as well as excellent testing and consulting services. The Science Council also stressed WIWeB’s important role in maintaining the operational readiness of the Bundeswehr and ensuring the protection of soldiers thanks to the facility’s great competence in terms of materiel testing and damage analysis.

Materials, Designs, Structures
Key technologies for the development of modern defense systems are inherent in both materials and design. WIWeB offers various test methods such as microstructural analysis, nondestructive testing, mechanical testing of samples or components, and simulations of the physical and mechanical properties of materials and structures. Thanks to these test methods, new defence materials and designs can be assessed with a special focus on the particularities of military use and issues related to military operations, e.g. damage analysis, service life, and accident evaluation.
The Bundeswehr 3D Printing Center with its extensive equipment for the production of plastic and metal components as well as the Bundeswehr control centre for welding and bonding technology are also worth highlighting. The focus of research is on possible uses of 3D printing in the context of Bundeswehr logistics.

Clothing, Surface Technology, Chemical Analytics
WIWeB establishes specifications for the procurement of military clothing and personal equipment. It is also responsible for the certification of manufacturers of camouflage clothing or equipment with vector protection. Research priorities include optimizing the personal equipment of soldiers to improve endurance (wearing comfort, extreme climate conditions, body armor etc.) as well as studies on the reduction of detectability (concealment) and clothing with specific functional features (smart textiles).
WIWeB boasts an array of surface analytical procedures that are primarily used in damage analytics and early detection of defects, the advanced development of bonding and repair procedures, and even asbestos analytics.

In the field of chemical analytics, the research facility mostly focuses on the characterisation of materials, fuels and textiles as well as the ageing and fire behavior of these substances. Further, WIWeB operates the Bundeswehr Hazardous Substance Measurement Office South.

Fuels and Lubricants, Material Protection
The availability of appropriate fuels and lubricants is a prerequisite for the mobility and, thus, the operational readiness of the Bundeswehr. Standardisation and certification ensure that fuels and lubricants remain efficient, reliable, safe, available on a long-term basis, usable in as many systems as possible and supportable with in a simple and sturdy logistics system. As the project authority for fuels and lubricants, WIWeB is also responsible for the actual fuels and POL products. This responsibility encompasses qualification and quality assurance as well as matters related to in-service support (e.g. on-condition monitoring, system behavior, tribology, alternative fuels) and obsolescence management.
Other tasks include the protection of materials from environmental impacts. As the responsible project authority for paints, lacquers and chemicals, WIWeB certifies coating systems and evaluates surface protection measures while also focusing on product processing for cleaning agents and packaging material.

Expertise and interconnection
On the basis of its capabilities, the research institute aims to understand and evaluate materials, fuels and lubricants in the context of entire systems. This requires not only interdisciplinary expertise but also connections to all parts of the Bundeswehr, the defense industry and European and international partners. The status of a departmental research institute provides the basis to specifically develop and maintain both important collaborations and the necessary knowledge through research.

German Liaison Office for Defense Materiel, USA/Canada

The German Liaison Office for Defense Materiel, USA/Canada is a subordinate agency of the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw) and is based in the US federal state of Virginia.

The Liaison Office building in Reston, Virginia (Photo: BAAINBw)

The German Liaison Office for Defense Material, USA/Canada represents the Bundeswehr’s interests in matters of defence technology and armaments towards the armed forces and agencies of the United States of America (USA) and Canada and the industry of these countries. Transatlantic cooperation covers a wide spectrum of defence-related technologies and various weapon systems in the domains of land, air and sea.

The agency’s staff largely consists of engineers and scientists but also legal experts, non-technical clerical administrative personnel, and soldiers. More than half of the personnel assigned to the 51 posts are assigned to project offices:

  • Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) Project Office (RAMPO) in Arlington/VA
  • NATO SEASPARROW Project Office (NSPO) in Arlington/VA
  • German PATRIOT Office (GEPO) in Huntsville/AL
    Multifunctional Information Distribution System International Program Office (MIDS IPO) in San Diego/CA
  • NATO Improved Link 11 in San Diego/CA

Personnel are also employed at liaison offices at US Army and Air Force facilities. The agency’s range of tasks and activities is oriented toward employing the available national resources as efficiently and effectively as possible in the context of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The aim of our work is to strengthen national military and industrial capabilities and bring about the development of joint standards and interoperable solutions for the mission-oriented equipment of the armed forces.

In this spirit, the German Liaison Office for Defense Materiel, USA/Canada is a competent point of contact for initiating and coordinating armaments cooperation with the USA and Canada in the field of research and technology as well as joint development and procurement programmes and contributes to maintaining and developing the capabilities of the national defence industry. Other focuses of its work are the acquisition of US and Canadian defence goods for the Bundeswehr and the management of personnel exchange programmes with defence engineers and defence scientists (Engineers and Scientists Exchange Program, ESEP) as well as administrative personnel (Administrative and Professional Personnel Exchange Program, APEP) of both nations. Fig. 2 shows the current duty locations of the 110th ESEP/34th APEP groups. Within the scope of these programmes two participants in these two groups were, again, sent to Canada. Ideally, posts in bilateral or multilateral projects are identified by US agencies, as it has happened in the case of the Naval Surface Warfare Center in the Ship Self Defense Department, Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) project in Port Hueneme, CA. Here, a defence engineer of the 110th ESEP/34th APEP group is working in the RAM project, as he did in Germany before, but now on the US side. As a consequence, an intense, direct and project-related transfer of knowledge takes place.
Moreover, within the scope of the cooperation with US agencies in the field of compliance demonstration considerable progress has been made recently, namely the conclusion of a Test and Evaluation Program (TEP) MoU (Memorandum of Understanding). For the Bundeswehr, this MoU provides the opportunity to use test and evaluation facilities of all US armed services. In return, the US Department of Defense (DoD) will get access to the German technical centers and research institutes. In addition, the MoU can be used as a basis for conducting joint tests and trials and for loaning equipment necessary for these tests and trials.

Duty locations ESEP/APEP (Graphic: BAAINBw)

From a German perspective, the MoU has distinctive advantages over the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) cases that were needed before the MoU was concluded. The conclusion of FMS contracts was, despite the low level of complexity, at times rather tedious and required the involvement of several US agencies. Now, a specific activity only requires the negotiation of a separate project agreement (PA) based on the MoU, which is considerably faster to implement.

In addition to the tasks described above, the Liaison Office assumes quality management tasks for products ordered in the USA and conducts these tasks in accordance with the contractually agreed acceptance criteria. To this end, the agency cooperates with US and Canadian government quality assurance authorities on a regular basis.

At present, the probably most important defence cooperation between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America is the Rolling Airframe Missile project. Current activities focus on the development of the Block 2B RAM missile and the preparations for equipping the K130 corvettes and the MKS 180 multirole combat ships (2nd lot) with RAM launchers.

Summing up, the German Liaison Office for Defense Materiel, USA/Canada is building up the mutual trust needed for effective transatlantic armaments cooperation by way of continuous dialogue with the US and Canadian partners.

The Naval Arsenal

The frigate LÜBECK as pilot project for corrective maintenance (Graphic: Naval Arsenal)

The Naval Arsenal in Wilhelmshaven is responsible for maintenance activities above unit level for ships, boats and shore-based facilities of the German Navy. In its work-shops, specially qualified personnel repair the weapons, command, control and em-ployment systems of the ships and boats. As far as the repair of ship and boat hulls and the components of a ship in a classic sense is concerned, such as shipbuilding and engineering systems and devices, repair contracts are awarded by the Naval Arsenal to shipyards and equipment manufacturers on a competitive basis.

Systems Expertise of the Future
The F125 class frigate is a key project for the German Navy, the German naval ship-building industry and the Naval Arsenal. The intensive use of this class of ships will entail new challenges for the Naval Arsenal, which will also have a major impact on the arsenal’s working methods and work structures.

As ships are meant to stay in the operating area for two years, the Naval Arsenal will have to prepare for long-distance support over extended periods of time. The per-sonnel must therefore be capable of understanding and analysing these ships so as to provide technical support for the system of systems. Furthermore, technical staff must comply with all of the relevant health requirements in order to be able to travel to the ships’ operating areas and perform any on-board maintenance activities the ship crews can no longer carry out themselves.

The development of the Naval Arsenal’s remote maintenance capability based on the arsenal’s reference systems is also a major priority; the related remote maintenance concept has already been completed. Secure Bundeswehr communication channels ensure the data connection between the Naval Arsenal and the ships in the operating area. Not only does the technical realisation of the so-called Marine Maintenance Channel (MMC) need to be put into practice, the MMC also requires an organisation-al framework. It has been agreed with the Navy that the ship’s command retains the authority to connect to the systems and devices of naval ships. The first test of real-time remote maintenance with MMC at the Corvette MAGDEBURG in the operating area in 2016 was a success.
An offline SASPF system is meant to ensure the logistic IT support of the F125 class frigates, which will be realised as part of the LogITU-F125 project. This project will also enable the Naval Arsenal to process all future maintenance activities for the units afloat in SASPF. This project solution will be tested during a pilot project, name-ly the corrective maintenance of the frigate LÜBECK in 2019.

The Naval Arsenal’s infrastructure dates back to the 1960s and is no longer up to today’s or even future standards of a maintenance shop for modern naval units. Nu-merous construction projects will be completed over the course of the next few years as part of the site-related development concept. This includes the planned demolition of old infrastructure as well as the construction of new buildings for future-oriented workshops, and it further includes a dry dock and a hangar, thus enabling the Naval Arsenal to support increasingly bigger and sophisticated naval units and to ensure their maintenance.

The Naval Arsenal will need young skilled workers, master craftsmen and technical civil servants of all career paths as well as administrative officers and legal experts in the administration and contract processing departments in order to reduce the aver-age age of the workforce. Direct recruitment makes it possible to attract employees with an academic background. When it comes to finding skilled workers, the Naval Arsenal’s apprenticeship workshop, where up to 60 apprentices are trained each year, has proved to be an advantage. Since 2013, the arsenal has been hiring again young skilled workers that underwent an apprenticeship at the Naval Arsenal. The Naval Arsenal’s cooperation with the Jade University of Applied Sciences in Wil-helmshaven, where students can complete a technical degree course with integrated career training for civil servants in the higher-intermediate technical administrative service, has also made it easier to combat recruiting challenges. In northwestern Germany, the Naval Arsenal is a pilot agency for this kind of cooperation within the major organisational element Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support and provides training to ten students each year.

All of the above-mentioned measures, from the renewal of infrastructure, preparations for the F125 class frigates and the continued SASPF implementation to recruitment, will be implemented by the Naval Arsenal over the course of the next few years while maintaining day-to-day operations. In addition, the necessary preparations for the supplementary procurement of the class 130 Corvette, the German-Norwegian joint project U212 Common Design (CD) as well as the multi-role combat ship MKS 180 have already begun.

Team of authors BAAINBw.