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The Luxembourg Army aligns its equipment with the commitments it has made to NATO
(NATO Defence Planning Process, NDPP) and the European Union.

With a personnel strength of around 1,000 military and civilian members and an annual budget of €426M (2021), the Luxembourg Army is the smallest in NATO and the EU. Luxembourg is a founding member of both Organisations and integrated into their common defence. The armed forces, on the scale of a regiment, are led by a general. The soldiers serve exclusively on a voluntary basis.


The main national missions are contributions to territorial defence and the protection of critical infrastructure. In addition, administrative assistance is provided such as in the event of disasters. In the international context, the Luxembourg Armed Forces participate with contingents in common collective defence in association with the international organisations of which Luxembourg is a member. Furthermore, participation in humanitarian and evacuation missions, peacekeeping missions, and crisis response operations, including peacemaking, as well as the review and monitoring of the implementation of international treaties to which Luxembourg is a party, are part of the army’s tasks.

By way of preparation, members of the armed forces are assigned on a voluntary basis to so-called units of operational readiness (unités de disponibilité opérationnelle, UDO), which can be deployed at short notice for international tasks.

The Luxembourg Armed Forces have participated in all major NATO and EU missions, as well as in UN missions with contingents of varying strength. Current examples are the participation in the European Training Mission in Mali (EUTM) and in MINUSMA, in the NATO Battlegroup in Lithuania in the framework of the enhanced Forward Presence (eFP), in the NATO mission in Iraq, in EUNAVFOR MED Op IRINI (EU) in the Mediterranean, as well as the SatCom support to the Estonian Armed Forces.


The Defence Minister’s budget for army operations and equipment has more than doubled in the past decade. In 2020, €388M were made available or 0.6 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP). That may seem small, given NATO’s demand of two per cent per member country. However, the comparatively high GDP in Luxembourg leads to defence spending of €567 per capita. Montenegro, which is comparable in population size, comes to €116 per capita with a budget amounting to 1.8 per cent of its GDP. Germany comes to €621 per capita at 1.6 per cent. The financial planning envisages an increase in the budget by almost half to €550M by 2024, corresponding to 0.72 per cent of GDP.

The limited resources, both in terms of personnel and budget, means Luxembourg needs to seek partners for significant projects. Luxembourg’s Armed Forces have entered a strategic partnership with its Belgian neighbours, which includes joint training (of command personnel), as well as joint armament projects. This includes Luxembourg’s decision to equip itself with communication and command means according to the standards of the French Scorpion programme, which is also the basis of the equipment in the Franco-Belgian Capacitè Motorisèe (CaMo) programme for modernising the capabilities of motorised units. Thales is the supplier of choice in this area.


Luxembourg has procured an A400M transport aircraft, operated jointly with Belgium from the Melsbroek air base north of Brussels. Belgium also represents Luxembourg in the programme organisation at OCCAR. With the A400M, Luxembourg participated in the evacuation of refugees from Afghanistan in August 2021.

In the creation of the Multinational MRTT Unit (MMU), Luxembourg is one of the founding members. After participation was extended in 2020, 1,200 flight hours per year have been agreed for Luxembourg. In May 2021, the first operational flight for Luxembourg transported the contingent for EUTM to Mali.

Wheeled Vehicle Programmes

For wheeled vehicles, the Luxembourg Armed Forces have embarked on a modernisation programme in which the main elements of the existing equipment will be renewed over a period of two decades. The focus is on three equipment programmes.

AMAROK Multi-Purpose Vehicles

In July 2021, the Luxembourg Army took delivery of a total of 23 VW AMAROK multi-purpose vehicles. As a result of a competition, the authorised VW dealer Garage Losch, Luxembourg, was selected as the main contractor. The vehicles were ordered in two variants: 20 Light Multi-purpose Vehicles (LMPV) and three tactical ambulance vehicles (Ambulance tactique).

In cooperation between Losch and the Dutch vehicle supplier Modiforce as subcontractor, 20 LMPVs were built according to the requirements of the Luxembourg Army. The 2.3-tonne vehicles are powered by a 3 l V6 diesel engine with 150 kW of emission class Euro VI via an automatic transmission. Four people can be transported in the cabin. The cargo compartment in the rear holds about 2 m³ of cargo. The load in the rear is protected against the weather by a hardtop, which is accessible from the rear on full cross-section and on both sides via flaps. Together with 175 kg roof load, a payload of 750 kg can be transported. With 20 cm ground clearance and 50 cm fording depth, the all-wheel drive LMPV can be used off-road.

Versatile Vehicle Equipment

The vehicle is air transportable with lashing eyes and approved for transport in the A400M (air clearance). Special military equipment includes a second (radio) battery, a 24-volt power supply (in addition to the 12-volt power supply), Thales radios, towbars to civilian and NATO standards, and the blackout light switch, which turns off all lights and turns on camouflage lighting.

The three Ambulance tactique vehicles were built by Losch together with the Finnish ambulance vehicle supplier Tamlans. In the extended chassis variant, the wheelbase was increased from 3,090 mm to 3,490 mm, a more powerful diesel engine with 188 kW as well as air suspension on the rear axle were installed. The total weight was increased to 3.5 tonnes. In the treatment room, a lying and a sitting patient can be accommodated and cared for by a medical professional. The necessary equipment is available and can be operated while driving. Additional batteries are available for this and for the military radio, which can be connected to the vehicle battery.

The procurement contract includes an agreement on manufacturer service during the first five years of operation. A total of almost €3M was spent on this project.

Protected Ambulance Vehicle (PAV) EAGLE V

In June 2021, four medium protected ambulance vehicles based on the 6×6 version of the EAGLE V were ordered from General Dynamics European Landsystems (GDELS). In its technical description, Luxembourg closely followed the specifications of the German procurement office, which concluded a procurement contract for 80 ambulances at almost the same time. Thus, despite the small order, it was possible to agree on the same price as for the German “large order”. The estimated €15M include the built-in medical and electronic equipment. The vehicle can transport two lying wounded and medical personnel side-by-side.

Differences exist in communication equipment and jammers, which are supplied by the subcontractor Thales, in medical equipment and in the additional rescue and recovery kit (spreader, cut-off grinder), which can be used to free patients from the vehicle.
The PAVs are due to be delivered from 2023 onwards.

Command Liaison and Reconnaissance Vehicle (CLRV)

In June 2021, the Luxembourg Minister of Defence, François Bausch, presented a plan for the procurement of 80 protected armoured command, liaison, and reconnaissance vehicles (CLRV). The new vehicles will replace a total of 90 obsolete protected vehicles – 42 High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV) HUMMER and 48 Protected Reconnaissance Vehicles (PRV) DINGO 2 – from 2024 onwards. The aim of the procurement project is to ensure uniform equipment at company level and closer alignment with the privileged partner Belgium to achieve advantages in deployment, training, and logistics over 15 to 20 years with interoperable and compatible equipment.

For the procurement, Luxembourg has called in the NATO Support and Procurement Agency NSPA. Within the specified ceiling of €367M, about one-sixth (€61M) is earmarked for platform procurement, one-third (€122M) for electronic equipment including radios, jammers, sensors, and armament, and about half (€184M) for operational logistical support.

CLV Vehicle Requirements

The tender, dated 1 July 2021, calls for a market-available 4-door military off-the-shelf (MOTS) vehicle with a maximum unladen weight of nine tonnes and a possible payload of 1.5 tonnes. The payload includes mission equipment and the four-person crew with equipment. Propulsion is required to be a 200 kW, 6-cylinder diesel engine (minimum Euro III) capable of a top speed of 100 km/h on solid road via a fully automatic transmission. The electronic/electrical architecture shall comply with the Scorpion architecture and ensure self-sufficient operation of the equipment for at least two hours.

The vehicle shall be divided into a protected cell for the crew and an unprotected cargo compartment with a volume of 1.5 m³. The basic protection against ballistic threats according to Level 1 (STANAG 4569) can be increased as required with easily mountable add-on elements. The level of protection to be achieved was not communicated, nor was the level of protection against mines and blasts. For self-protection, the CLRV is equipped with a Remote Weapon Station (RWS). Protection also includes NBC protection ventilation, which is combined with the air conditioning system.

The decision on the selection of a bidder is to be made in 2022. A first vehicle lot with a total of ten CLRVs with RWS is to be delivered by 30 April 2024 at the latest. A subsequent lot with a total of 30 CLRVs with RWS is expected to be delivered by 31 October 2024 at the latest in order to achieve an initial capability from 1 January 2025. After completion of all deliveries by 31 October 2025 at the latest, full operational capability is planned to be achieved from 31 December 2025.

DINGO 2 Support Vehicles

In 2010, Luxembourg procured 48 Protected Reconnaissance Vehicles (PRV) based on the DINGO 2 from Krauss-Maffei Wegmann. These vehicles are being replaced by the CLRV described above due to obsolete weapon systems and electronic equipment.
In subsequent years, a further 15 DINGO 2s were procured, which remain in use independently of the CLRV. These include a protected ambulance vehicle, two vehicles for SatCom connections, two recovery vehicles with winches, four command vehicles and six light transport vehicles. Some of the DINGO vehicles are pick-up trucks with mission equipment in interchangeable bodies.

Multi-Purpose Logistic Support Truck (MLST) Scania G480

For logistic tasks, 31 Scania G480 Multi-purpose Logistic Support Trucks (MLST) are available. Three of them are designed as recovery vehicles and equipped with Empl’s BISON recovery equipment.

These 8×8 vehicles are powered by a 353-kW diesel engine that complies with the Euro V emission standard. Ten of the 28 transport trucks are equipped with a protected cab from Centigon. With a total weight of 39 tonnes, 22 tonnes are available for payload (18 tonnes with protected cab). Container carrying frames enable the transport of ISO containers. With X-frames for container handling and hooks for flatracks, loading and unloading is done without external assistance.

There are currently no plans to replace the vehicles. Modernisation is conceivable once the procurement measures described above have been completed.


The renewal of a substantial part of its vehicle fleet enables Luxembourg to provide medium forces for the performance of national and international tasks. In doing so, the country is cooperating with competent partners to procure reliable equipment with low risk.