Start Archive: News & Articles

Archive: News & Articles


Successfully Navigating the Canadian Offset Maze

As Canada undertakes modernisation of its armed forces, the country’s offset requirements remain somewhat tricky to navigate. Canada is currently engaged in what could be described as a once in generation defence modernisation programme. For the first time in many years, the Canadian Forces are moving forwards on a range of significant defence procurement programmes, […]

Indonesia – Partner for Europe?

Since the end of the Suharto ‘New Order’ regime in 1998, Indonesia has gradually transitioned to democratic governance, made significant improvements to its economy and progress in improving the life of its people. Inevitably there is a long way to go, Indonesia is evolving rapidly, but faces significant challenges that will test its governing elite […]

Historical Increase in Austrian Defence Spending, but Debate on Neutrality Remains Frozen

The war in Ukraine has seen Austria finally begin to move towards re-investing in its armed forces, however, on more fundamental issues such as the question of Austria’s neutrality, Vienna refuses to budge. Two years ago, this author spent a day with the Indian-run helicopter wing of the security forces of Mauritius. Their commander was […]



Naval Modernisation in Southeast Asia

Although the COVID-19 pandemic and economic difficulties have limited funds available for technical modernisation, Southeast Asian states are striving to meet their priorities, among which Naval modernisation remains a key goal. Development and security of all states in Southeast Asia depend on their unhindered access to seas. No wonder that they most of them consider […]

Australia’s Lethality System Project for Next-Generation Small Arms

Australia is in the midst of an extensive programme aimed at procuring the next generation of small arms for its land forces. Thus far, several new weapons at the lighter end have already been selected, but many choices remain at the heavier end of the spectrum. LAND 159, otherwise known as the ‘Lethality System Project’, […]

“A Shovel is your Best Friend” – Advice to Mobilised Russians Provides Battlefield Insights

A Russian journalist has published a list of advice for newly mobilised Russian personnel, which provides insights into the nature of the war for Russian troops, as well as the challenges facing the mobilised personnel. The article, published by Komsomolskaya Pravda on 28 September 2022 was written by Alexander Kots. Kots is a former Russian […]



Eastern European Armoured Vehicle Programmes

Even before the outbreak of the current war in Ukraine, most Eastern European states had plans to acquire new armoured vehicles. Now, in a response to that war, some of them have already intensified their efforts. More purchases should be expected in the near future. The war in Ukraine came as a shock to many […]

Ammunition Standardisation and Interchangeability

In this article, Thomas L. Nielsen examines in detail the core concepts and requirements central to the standardisation and interchangeability of ammunition, from small arms to tank guns. Most people, especially those involved in military logistics, will have a reasonable idea of what the words ‘standardisation’ and ‘interchangeability’ mean, and why they are important. Nevertheless, […]

Lessons Learned from the MMF Programme – A Reference for Future Cooperative Defence Acquisition Initiatives

Europe’s Multinational MRTT Fleet (MMF) programme is the most successful example of international cooperation in armament procurement. What are the main success factors that may have applicability in future similar initiatives? European nations today face an uncertain and unpredictable strategic situation. New scenarios require new capabilities in increasing numbers, whilst the cost of individual weapons […]



US Army Enters New Small Arms Era

The US Army has selected a winner for its Next Generation Squad Weapons (NGSW) programme to replace the M4/M4A1 carbine in the form of the Next Generation Squad Weapon-Rifle (NGSW-R) and the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) in the form of the Next Generation Squad Weapon-Automatic Rifle (NGSW-AR). Background The NGSW programme commenced in October 2018, replacing […]

The Hypersonic Arms Race Can Banning Such Systems Increase Strategic Stability?

In March 2022, the Russian Defence Ministry announced that it had used the hypersonic missile, KINZHAL in Ukraine. While KINZHAL is a hypersonic aero ballistic missile and ballistic missiles travel hypersonic speeds during their trajectory, the event raised concerns about future of hypersonic weapon systems. With hypersonic cruise missiles and Hypersonic Technology Vehicles (HTVs) now […]

Spain in NATO’s Missile Defence Architecture

Spain was always a crucial partner in the US effort to field missile defence capabilities in Europe to counter short, medium and intermediate range ballistic missile threats from Iran and North Korea. In May 2020, the ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyer USS ROOSEVELT (DDG 80) arrived at Rota, Spain, replacing USS CARNEY (DDG 64) as part […]



“We will do our Utmost to Use Taxpayers’ Money Well and Efficiently”

In response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the German Armed Forces are to be modernised after decades of neglect. In an interview with ESD magazine, Defence Minister Christine Lambrecht explains her intentions for the German Bundeswehr. ESD: In June 2022, three summits focused on the security situation in Europe and the world following Putin’s […]

The Long Road…

Oshkosh recently delivered the last of 78 upgraded Medium Equipment Transporters (METs) to the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) under an approximate GBP 16 million contract. The first of these upgraded trucks have already been used to transport additional British Army armoured vehicles and equipment out to Estonia. Under a June 2020 post design services […]

Thermobarics – Developments and Deployments

Thermobaric weapons, also known as Fuel Air Explosives (FAE), vacuum or aerosol bombs, dual-stage explosives or enhanced-blast weapons, have been developed and deployed by various militaries for a range of applications since WW2. Their latest high-profile appearance has, of course, been their documented use by Russia in its war on Ukraine. From FAE mine-clearing systems […]



European Combat Aircraft SITREP

Two groups of European states are working on the development of a Future Combat Air System programme. The UK-led programme is progressing more rapidly than the Franco-German one, but the completion of the two remains far from being achieved, thus the prospect of a possible merger has been raised. In the last five years, six […]

F-35: Markets and Partners

It is said by some observers that “In the F-35 Lightning II, fighter pilots move with impunity.” The fifth generation F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), considered the world’s stealthiest and most lethal jet, forms the mainstay of not just the American fighter fleet but also of its eight partner nations and other NATO and […]

“Finland has Longstanding Armaments Cooperation with NATO”

Finland has consistently taken a pragmatic approach to defense policy. When the Cold War ended, most Western countries reduced their defence spending and shifted to small professional armies. Finland, however, took a different approach – not least because of its 800-mile border with Russia. Helsinki insisted on conscription and a large defense budget. ESD had […]



US Army Future Vertical Lift: A Status Report

The US Army’s Future Vertical Lift (FVL) programme aims to replace the current tactical vertical lift fleet with state-of-the-art systems endowed with reduced logistical footprint and enhanced: manoeuvrability range speed payload survivability reliability Increased range and speed are intended to enhance survivability and permit missions to begin from beyond the reach of enemy long-range weapons, […]

Is the War in Ukraine Affecting Norway’s Security Situation? – During the Cold War, Norway’s northernmost county, Finnmark, was, along with Turkey, one of the only land areas in NATO that had a direct land border with the Soviet Union.

The county of Finnmark stretches from West to East, all the way in the North of the Scandinavian peninsula, and at its easternmost point, where it borders Russia, is further east than St. Petersburg. Finnmark is geographically the largest of the Norwegian counties, and the distance by road from its West to its East exceeds […]

Sensor to Shooter Chains Turn into Kill Webs

Western military powers rely on sophisticated and precise weapons to deter and defeat asymmetric and near-peer opponents. To be effective, such weapons are matched with accurate information regarding their targets, such as location and status. When time-critical targets are involved, this information needs to be provided rapidly, otherwise, the target may relocate. The process defined […]




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