Start Archive: News & Articles

Archive: News & Articles


Nurol Makina Developing New NMS Variants

The Turkish private company Nurol Makina is developing two new variants of its NMS 4×4 protected mobility vehicle, Emre Akin, Nurol’s head of strategic planning told ESD in an interview on 27 September 2022. The NMS builds on the success of the company’s Ejder Yalcin, over 1,000 of which have been sold to 10 different […]

Successfully Navigating the Canadian Offset Maze

As Canada undertakes modernisation of its armed forces, the country’s offset requirements remain somewhat tricky to navigate. Canada is currently engaged in what could be described as a once in generation defence modernisation programme. For the first time in many years, the Canadian Forces are moving forwards on a range of significant defence procurement programmes, […]

Indonesia – Partner for Europe?

Since the end of the Suharto ‘New Order’ regime in 1998, Indonesia has gradually transitioned to democratic governance, made significant improvements to its economy and progress in improving the life of its people. Inevitably there is a long way to go, Indonesia is evolving rapidly, but faces significant challenges that will test its governing elite […]



The Turkey-Azerbaijan-Israel Axis: Pragmatic as Ever

The ties and activity within the Turkey-Israel-Azerbaijan triad are motivated by mutual national and strategic interests and/or by coinciding political reasoning. The broader Middle East and the Eastern Mediterranean constitute a complex geopolitical area saturated by a diversity of actors. Even though the preservation of fragile balance between them can become problematic, these states are […]

Historical Increase in Austrian Defence Spending, but Debate on Neutrality Remains Frozen

The war in Ukraine has seen Austria finally begin to move towards re-investing in its armed forces, however, on more fundamental issues such as the question of Austria’s neutrality, Vienna refuses to budge. Two years ago, this author spent a day with the Indian-run helicopter wing of the security forces of Mauritius. Their commander was […]

Raytheon and MBDA to Jointly Build PATRIOT Missiles in Germany

The war in Ukraine and the large-scale Russian missile attacks on the country’s civilian infrastructure impressively demonstrate the importance of effective air defence. For this to function, however, a sufficient number of interceptor missiles is necessary in order not to maintain defensive capability through a long strike campaign and also avoid defences becoming saturated. Users […]



Europe’s Role in the Asian Strategic Matrix

We live in an interconnected world, with global communication faster than ever before, making the world a smaller and more complicated place. Up until the end of the Cold War, in a strategic context life was very simple. There were two superpowers, the US and the USSR, and right in the middle was Europe, effectively […]

Long-range SAMs Reshape Modern Air Tactics

For Russian and Ukrainian pilots tasked with combat missions in the current conflict between their respective counties, the Almaz-Antey S-300P (SA-10 ‘Grumble’) surface-to-air missile (SAM) system must be a constant worry. In service with both sides, it has a mobility and range that makes enemy coverage of the contested airspace hard for either side to […]

Controversial but Effective – Dual-Use Military/Police Tech

From guns and ammunition, to body armour, drones, vehicles, anti-terror crash barriers and much more, the list of off-the-shelf equipment, made for either military or policing purposes, but which can equally and effectively be adopted and used by the other, is a long one. The operational worlds of military and policing can sometimes mirror one […]



Lessons Learned from the MMF Programme – A Reference for Future Cooperative Defence Acquisition Initiatives

Europe’s Multinational MRTT Fleet (MMF) programme is the most successful example of international cooperation in armament procurement. What are the main success factors that may have applicability in future similar initiatives? European nations today face an uncertain and unpredictable strategic situation. New scenarios require new capabilities in increasing numbers, whilst the cost of individual weapons […]

Spain in NATO’s Missile Defence Architecture

Spain was always a crucial partner in the US effort to field missile defence capabilities in Europe to counter short, medium and intermediate range ballistic missile threats from Iran and North Korea. In May 2020, the ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyer USS ROOSEVELT (DDG 80) arrived at Rota, Spain, replacing USS CARNEY (DDG 64) as part […]

Iran’s Missile Prowess and the Nuclear Deal

Amid the nuclear crisis, one thing that has remained constant in Iran’s national security strategy is the development and testing of a sophisticated ballistic and cruise missile capability. Missiles form an integral component of Iran’s national security strategy as such capabilities not only enable Iran to strengthen its hard power capability, but also promote soft […]



“We will do our Utmost to Use Taxpayers’ Money Well and Efficiently”

In response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the German Armed Forces are to be modernised after decades of neglect. In an interview with ESD magazine, Defence Minister Christine Lambrecht explains her intentions for the German Bundeswehr. ESD: In June 2022, three summits focused on the security situation in Europe and the world following Putin’s […]

The Long Road…

Oshkosh recently delivered the last of 78 upgraded Medium Equipment Transporters (METs) to the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) under an approximate GBP 16 million contract. The first of these upgraded trucks have already been used to transport additional British Army armoured vehicles and equipment out to Estonia. Under a June 2020 post design services […]

Austria in NATO’s Air and Missile Defence Architecture

Given the Ukrainian crisis, there have been questions raised if Austria too would join the NATO or continue their neutral status as enshrined in their constitution. Though the Austrian Chancellor has reiterated Austria’s position claiming, “Austria was neutral, is neutral, and remains neutral”, its neutrality has now been questioned and criticised by many policy makers […]



“Finland has Longstanding Armaments Cooperation with NATO”

Finland has consistently taken a pragmatic approach to defense policy. When the Cold War ended, most Western countries reduced their defence spending and shifted to small professional armies. Finland, however, took a different approach – not least because of its 800-mile border with Russia. Helsinki insisted on conscription and a large defense budget. ESD had […]

US Army Future Vertical Lift: A Status Report

The US Army’s Future Vertical Lift (FVL) programme aims to replace the current tactical vertical lift fleet with state-of-the-art systems endowed with reduced logistical footprint and enhanced: manoeuvrability range speed payload survivability reliability Increased range and speed are intended to enhance survivability and permit missions to begin from beyond the reach of enemy long-range weapons, […]

Is the War in Ukraine Affecting Norway’s Security Situation? – During the Cold War, Norway’s northernmost county, Finnmark, was, along with Turkey, one of the only land areas in NATO that had a direct land border with the Soviet Union.

The county of Finnmark stretches from West to East, all the way in the North of the Scandinavian peninsula, and at its easternmost point, where it borders Russia, is further east than St. Petersburg. Finnmark is geographically the largest of the Norwegian counties, and the distance by road from its West to its East exceeds […]



Capabilities Made in Norway – Norwegian Defence Industry Delivers World-Class Defence Equipment to Armed Forces around the World

Innovation, affordability, and effectiveness are key drivers that have shaped the Norwegian defence industry for more than six decades. Today the industry controls a portfolio of advanced and innovative defence equipment that has been shaped by the operational requirements of the Norwegian and allied armed forces. Norwegian defence cotractors are world-leaders in several niches, and […]

Norway’s Security Environment and Role in NATO

Russian aggression against Ukraine has also influenced the security of Norway – Oslo has decided to increase short-term defence spending and boost rapid reaction capabilities, particularly in the High North. However, Norway does not report any increase to the Russian Northern Fleet, and so a long-term spending increase is rather unlikely. Political-security alignments on the […]

ITAR-Related Obstacles to Exports

The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) is known as the strictest export control framework ever imagined. It has caused a lot of ink to flow, and occasionally, even political tensions among allied countries. Two main acts underpin the US’ export control policy. ITAR Background The Arms Exports Control Act (AECT) (1976), implemented by the […]




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