Start Archive: News & Articles

Archive: News & Articles

Maintaining Deterrence and Defence: Italy’s Improving Submarine Capability Strengthens NATO’s Southern Flank

Italy’s new diesel-electric submarine (SSK) – being delivered under the U212 Near Future Submarine (NFS) programme – will arrive at a time when new submarine capabilities are having significant effect in an increasingly contested underwater domain. The boats’ improved capabilities will reinforce the output the Italian Navy is already generating with its Todaro class Type […]

The MILGEM Programme: Turkish Naval Procurement and Exports

Turkey’s MILGEM programme represents a significant accomplishment in that country’s sustained effort to become a designer, builder and exporter of advanced naval warships. The MILGEM’s programme history highlights how Turkey has built on the initial domestic customer base for MILGEM corvettes to expand into the export market; a proven business model used by many other […]

US–Turkey Relations: Biden Navigates Difficulties with Erdoğan

This article highlights several complex issues affecting US–Turkey bilateral relations. The current state of US–Turkey relations can be characterised as tense and rather difficult. Furthermore, there seems to be no light at the end of the tunnel that might reduce tensions between these NATO allies. Introduction: Human Rights or Humans without Rights in Turkey Since […]

The ‘Rhein/Rhin’ Franco-German Air Transport Squadron: Blueprint for a New Approach  

When the ‘Rhein/Rhin’ Franco-German air transport squadron was officially inaugurated at Évreux, Normandy, on 9 March 2022, a new chapter of Franco-German military co-operation was opened. German and French military personnel commonly operate four French C-130J transport aircraft (two of which are KC-130J tanker variants) and three German C-130J-30s, while three German KC-130J tanker variants […]

Ukraine’s Favourite Dish

It is one of the most famous capabilities to make a difference in Ukraine’s ongoing war, but how applicable is SpaceX’s Starlink satellite communications system to future military operations? On 28th February 2022, four days after Russia’s second invasion of Ukraine, mercurial billionaire Elon Musk, sent Starlink Satellite Communications (SATCOM) terminals to Ukraine. Starlink is […]

Taking Control of the Situation

From earthquakes, floods and wildfires on the natural side of things, to man-made, mass-casualty events, as such incidents unfold, they present first responders and emergency personnel arriving on-site with typically chaotic scenes. Implementing immediate, coordinated and well-rehearsed control procedures is needed from the start, not least of which is the establishment of an incident command […]

Malaysia Confronts Challenging Defence Environment

Malaysia’s regional defence environment is characterised by a complex and dynamic security landscape, with a range of security threats, including border disputes, piracy, and terrorism. The country’s strategic location in Southeast Asia has also made it an important partner in regional security cooperation efforts. For the European defence industry Malaysia was once one of their […]

The South Caucasus in the Shadow of the War in Ukraine

The trilateral ceasefire agreement signed on 9 November 2020 between Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia created a serious shift in the balance of powers in the South Caucasus. Consequently, Russia’s influence on developments in this region has been brought into question by the close alliance between Turkey and Azerbaijan. For its part, Armenia has tried to […]

The Phantom Supply Chains of European Armies

The Western arms industry is overstretched. With replenishment times for arms shipped to Ukraine alarmingly high, it is not enough for European armies to have quality suppliers. It is now also a question of being well-positioned in the delivery priorities of defence companies. Over the past decades, European countries have allowed their weapon arsenals and […]

The Transformation of the Hungarian Defence Forces

The global and European security environment is characterised by instability and unpredictability. Crises in distant regions may have both short- and long-term impact on Hungary’s security, increasing the number and scope of threats and challenges to our country. Overall, the global security environment is deteriorating. The shifting balance of power is accompanied by a renewed […]

Hungarian Infantry Tactical Mobility

The ambitious armament programme of the Hungarian armed forces, originally called ‘Zrinyi 2026’, has also had a lasting influence on the equipment of the infantry. In addition to aspects of modernisation that affect all branches of the armed forces, such as small arms, communications or personal equipment, the issue of tactical mobility is of particular […]

Hungary’s Modernisation Plans

Hungary has been investing heavily in military modernisation to enhance its national defensive capabilities and contribute to NATO collective defence. This article provides an overview of Hungary’s major equipment procurement programmes, and how this will shape the country’s force structure going into the future. Since joining NATO in 1999, Hungary has been working to modernise […]

Back in Business

Greece has technological inventiveness and innovation going far back into its history. Recent decades, however, have seen a malaise and financial downturn impacting all of society, though economic recovery now seems to be in full swing, including for the nation’s high-tech defence sector. From Archimedes’ Screw, differential gears, cranes, winches, the torsion catapult and even […]

ESD Interviews – Ambassador Haim Regev

In March 2023, ESD interviewed his excellency Ambassador Haim Regev, Head of the Mission of Israel to the EU and NATO. The interview was conducted by ESD’s Curtis Hand. Ambassador Regev began his assignment as Head of the Mission of Israel to the EU and NATO in August 2021. Previously, he served as the Head […]

Balloon Busting: Uncovering China’s Increasingly Pervasive Airborne Surveillance Activities

On 4 February 2023 the US Air Force shot down a Chinese surveillance balloon that had overflown US airspace during the preceding week. The event highlighted the significant efforts to which China is going to gather intelligence on US military assets and may signify a more robust response to those efforts. When the US Air […]

AUKUS – A New Security Reality

AUKUS is a trilateral security arrangement between Australia, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) that came into being in September 2021. It reflects the shared concerns of the three signatories about the evolution of the Indo-Pacific security environment in the context of the economic and military challenge from China. Of course what […]

Supplying the Skies – NATO`s MRTT Fleet

The Multinational Multirole Tanker Transport Unit (MMU) is a key component of NATO’s air-to-air refuelling (AAR), strategic aeromedical evacuation (Strat AE), and air transportation capabilities. Now, 11 years after the concept was first agreed upon, it is beginning to provide its members with critical aerial capabilities. On 23 March 2023, NATO’s Multinational Multirole Tanker Transport […]

India, US Announce Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies

Deepening Indo-US ties soared to newer heights with the recent announcement of the US-India Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies (iCET), aimed at collaboration in key areas. Covering a wide spectrum from military, strategic, to scientific sectors, though the iCET represents an aligned positioning between both democracies. Strategic experts are largely viewing the initiative as […]

Protecting Critical Infrastructure

Threats to critical infrastructure (CI) and the need for nation states to protect such assets have been brought to the fore with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and its relentless attacks, both physical and via cyberspace, on the country’s vital assets. Critical infrastructure, the services and utilities essential to the well-being, proper functioning and cohesion of […]

Understanding the View – Imagery in Geospatial Intelligence

Relying heavily on imagery from which to elicit usable information, Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) can give a fighting force the upper hand in a conflict. Likewise, having access to high quality images from space can make all the difference. Satellite and aerial imagery plays by far the biggest role in the provision of raw material from […]

Land Mobility for Special Operations Forces

The return to national and alliance defence in the Western Hemisphere has consequences for training, personnel, materiel and tactics and this is not just limited to any one troop category. As a result, many countries are currently reviewing the capabilities that their Special Operations Forces (SOF) require in order for them to be ready for […]

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