Collectively, Europe is a very large military spender. But it is far from being a large military power. This is because of inefficiencies in spending and the untapped potential of working together on planning and procurement.

In a debate with MEPs, Ursula von der Leyen outlined her vision as Commission President, 16 July 2019. Some observers hope that she exerts a positive impact on future joint efforts.
Map of the members of the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO); dark blue: PESCO member, light blue: other EU member